Grapes are one of the most delicious berries on earth. In addition, it is very useful. Grapes make juices, jams and wine. Not to mention the fact that they use in food not only berries, but also the leaves of this wonderful plant, as well as make medicinal tinctures. In our region, grapes arrived from the Mediterranean, and now year after year gardeners are pleased with their delicious fruits. In this article we would like to tell you about this new grape variety, like Baikonur. And give a description and instructions for growing it.
Table grape variety - Baikonur
Description of grapes Baikonur
Baikonur grapes belong to table grape varieties. It was brought by an amateur grower, Pavlovsky. It turned out he had by crossing two grape varieties, and in his characteristic largely repeats the description of these two subspecies: Beauty and Talisman. Baikonur, a young hybrid variety, with very early ripening periods, until full maturity no more than 115 days pass, and under the condition of good weather, even earlier. The bushes he has vigorous, shoots grow very quickly. Give a lot of eyes, sometimes they should even thin out. It has flowers of both sexes. The leaves are large, green. Baikonur owes its appearance to its progenitor, Pretty Woman, in appearance it strongly resembles her description. The berries of this grape are large, cylindrical, painted in dark blue. One berry can be up to 16 grams by weight, and in length up to 40 mm. The flesh of the fruit is juicy, fleshy, with a pleasant aroma. The skin is dense, and there are about three seeds in the berry. Clusters of this variety have a medium-friable structure. On average, a bunch reaches 700 grams, but with careful care, regular watering and fertilizing, it can grow up to one kilogram. True, in the first year of fruiting one brush rarely reaches a large weight, most often not more than 0.5 kg. The taste of grapes is excellent, it is sweet, with a barely noticeable acidity, does not have a nutmeg flavor. This grape is recommended to use fresh.
Description of the fruits of Baikonur
This subspecies is quite generous, and its berries are distinguished by good juiciness and high sugar content. Due to this quality of fruits, Baikonur is suitable for preparing homemade wine or brandy. As a raw material for the preparation of beverages, it practically does not require an increase in the sweetness by artificial means. Jam from these berries is quickly sugar and retains its flavor for a long time. The main condition for cooking is temperature control, high sugar content contributes to fast burning. As a raw material for wines, it may require an artificial increase in acidity, but it all depends on the growing conditions and the care of this plant during the ripening period of the fruit. If you increase the watering at this time, the sugar content may exceed the norm by 3 times.
The berries have good juiciness and high sugar content.
Baikonur has a dense skin, but it does not affect the taste of the grapes, and is not noticeable when eaten. The description of the fruits presented in the agronomical source code suggests that during the period of full ripening, the berries accumulate up to 20% of sugar, such indicators remain, even in rainy summer conditions. The level of acidity in grapes is insignificant, not more than 8%.
Baikonur belongs to high-yielding grape varieties. The fruits have an excellent presentation, and this attracts buyers. Grapes easily carry transportation, it does not affect its appearance. Ripe clusters can stay on the bushes for a long time without loss of taste. Cut grapes can be stored for a long time., especially if you put it in the cellar. Baikonur belongs to frost-resistant varieties, it is able to tolerate a decrease in temperature up to -23 degrees. Therefore, this grape is well suited for cultivation in the northern regions. At its core, Baikonur is unpretentious, so even a beginner grower will cope with its cultivation.
Due to the dense skin, the grapes do not crack, which is very important for hot and sunny regions. Berries are not subject to shedding and pea. Also damage to the fruit by wasps or other insects was not noticed. On the shoots mature in several buds, from one to four. It should be noted that the smaller the kidneys, the harder it will be a ripe cluster, therefore, sometimes, extra kidneys should be removed.
Due to high yields and heavy grapes, the branches of the grapes can break. Therefore, it is better to take care of this in advance. Put pegs or trellis in the bushes.
High yield of grapes Baikonur
Baikonur is resistant to such diseases as: mildew, gray rot, oidium. But the stability is low, up to 3 balls.
If you are thinking whether it is worth growing Baikonur on your own plot, then you can be convinced of the mass of positive aspects of this grape, which contains in detail the description of the variety:
- has early ripening,
- has excellent taste,
- easy to transport
- resistant to some diseases of the species,
- can be stored for a long time both on the branches after ripening, and after cutting, in the refrigerator,
- not unpretentious to weather conditions,
- is not subject to attack by wasps,
- does not crack, does not fall down and is not subject to a pea.
Detailed description of the cultivation of grapes Baikonur
Since there are seeds in Baikonur, it can be grown with seeds. But this is a complex and laborious process that requires a lot of attention. In addition, if you grow this variety in this way, the result may be very unexpected, and the taste of the grapes will change. If you are not ready for such experiments, it is better to purchase ready-made planting material. Only you need to buy in proven places, and the plant must be certified so that the grapes do not have any diseases. To purchase seedlings need to be taken seriously, because there are many pitfalls. You can purchase grapes on the market or fair, but can you be sure that you have sold exactly the grapes you want? It is better to buy any garden crop (not only grapes) in nurseries. There, the planting material you purchased will be verified and certified. But you can choose other ways to purchase. For example, you can buy the grape variety you need from your neighbors, or online from proven summer residents.
It is best to choose seedlings in a nursery with a proven reputation.
It is possible to grow Baikonur saplings even in the conditions of an apartment. For this you will need cuttings of this variety. They are cut in the fall, when the grapes gathered their strength for the season. To do this, select ripe ripened vines, and prune them to a length of 40 cm. There must be at least three buds on the handle. The cut material is wrapped in wet gauze and placed in a cool place. For this well suited fridge or cellar.
The cuttings harvested from autumn are taken out at the end of February, the beginning of March, and cut. Bottom cutting is cut under the bud at an angle of 90 degrees. From above the incision is made oblique. The main thing is to have at least three buds on the vine. Bottom, along the cutting, small vertical cuts are made, this will help the formation of roots. Next, the prepared material is placed in a deep container (it is possible in a bucket), and filled with cold water (it is better to take rain water, or melted snow). Honey should be added to the water, with one spoon per ten liters of water. We put all this in a cool place for a day, checking that the water temperature does not rise above 18 degrees.
After that, the cuttings are taken from a bucket, and put in a jar of water, pour a little water, no more than four centimeters. Next, you need to put your seedlings on the windowsill, it is better if it will go to the south side. Check the amount of liquid in the bank, if it becomes less, then fill it in time. After a week, you will see how the buds bloom, and after two roots will appear.
When the roots grow to 0.5-1 cm, the seedling can be planted in a pot or a half-liter glass. For the land, you can use a mixture of earth, sand and humus, in a ratio of 1: 0.5: 1. For drainage at the bottom of the pot is put fine gravel. Planted stalk gently, so as not to damage the roots. It is not worth ramming the earth, it will settle down later. Now the main time to water your seedlings. Watering is best done with melt water. The land should not be allowed to dry out, but in no case should a “swamp” be organized. Grown seedlings can be transplanted in open ground, already in late March.
Planting seedlings in the prepared pit
For planting Baikonur, you need to choose a suitable place in the garden. Suitable south side of the garden, or southwest. It would be nice if from the north, the grapes were covered from the wind by the trees, and even better the building, in which case the heated house in a day, would warm the grapes at night.
It is important that the soil on your site is light and fertile. Black soil will do. In addition, you need to know if the area of underground water. After all, grapes are planted deep in the ground, and if there is groundwater, then they can flush the roots of the plant, limiting the oxygen tolerance. This will lead to oxygen starvation of the grapes, and ultimately the death of the plant. Therefore, if groundwater can not be avoided, then make the gutters.
Three weeks before planting the cuttings in open ground, they dig a pit 80 cm deep. On the bottom, for drainage, rubble is laid out (15 cm). Next, peat is poured into the pit along with chernozem (or other fertile soil). In the middle of the pit is a stick. The soil will gradually be compacted, therefore, as needed, earth is poured into the pit. When the earth settles, the stick must be stuck out, and a Baikonur sapling should be planted in its place. Planting seedlings sparsely, keeping a distance of at least two meters, because this variety is vigorous, and it can be cramped.
But if you want to plant a sapling in the fall, then you better do it as late as possible, with the onset of the first cold weather. Otherwise, the sapling will give shoots that will eventually die.
Description of Baikonur care after landing
After you have planted a seedling in a hole, you need to pour it abundantly with water, about three buckets for each seedling. It is important to continue to continue abundant watering. The main description of care for cuttings after planting is that this variety does not like dry land, but it is unacceptable to create a swamp under the grapes. To prevent the moisture from evaporating immediately, use mulching of the soil under the seedlings. For this well suited sawdust or hay. During watering, hay must be removed. It is also worth sometimes to feed plants with nitrogen fertilizers.
Pruning leaves in grapes to improve fruiting
In the fall, be sure to pruning bushes. At Baikonur, you can leave ten or more eyes on the shoots. By pruning is best to start in October, when the bushes will throw off all the foliage, then you can prepare the cuttings for further planting. If the region has severe frosts, then it is better to prepare Baikonur for the winter. To do this, harbor grapes, constructing around him a small greenhouse. And in the spring, before flowering, the grapes should be treated for possible pests and diseases.
Description of Baikonur care for the first year of life
Description of Baikonur care for the first year of life, not much different from other grape varieties. It is necessary to support the earth in a loosened form. We need to remove weeds in time, as they will hinder the development of young grapes. On trees, remove the formed bark.
In the first year of grape life, your main task is to grow healthy shoots. In the first year, shoots from Baikonur develop rapidly and unevenly. Well, if the shoots by the fall will be up to a centimeter in thickness, then in the spring they will be strong, and we can hope that the vine will bring harvest. Do not be afraid to remove excess shoots, then the main ones will develop better. Do not forget to water Baikonur bushes in time, on each bush, pouring out 10 liters of water, and also from time to time feed the plants with fertilizers.
Grapes varieties Baikonur: description of the culture
Baikonur grapes belong to table varieties of an early aging period (from the beginning of the growing season to the tasting of the first clusters, 110-115 days pass, they can be cut off in the first half of August). Composing the description of the variety, the author of the culture indicated that the Baikonur grape is well rooted and stretches into growth and forms large conical or cylindroconic clusters.
Vine produces beautiful green leaves that can serve as a hedge of the suburban area. Berries culture gives large weighing 12 - 16 g and up to 3 - 4 cm in size. Their shape is elongate-nipple, the color is rich purple with black tint. Grapes are covered with a dense skin, within which is concentrated juicy dense flesh. Each berry contains 2 - 3 seeds. The taste of Baikonur grapes is sweet-sour with a predominance of sweetness, sugar accumulation is 19-20%.
Due to the strong growth of bushes and early maturity, the culture is considered to be an excellent fruit bearing. But because of the excess clusters on one vine, the plants need to be rationed. If you neglect pruning, the shoots will break under the weight of the crop or will suffer in the size of the bunch.
The advantages and disadvantages of grapes Baikonur
Speaking about the merits of the Baikonur grape, agronomists call a lot of positive facts:
- The presence of bisexual flowers provides full pollination of bushes and the absence of pea.
- Resistance to changes in soil moisture and temperature fluctuations in air saves berries from cracking due to the dense skin.
- Early periods of ripening gronok.
- Excellent product specifications.
- Safety of an attractive look and pleasant taste during a long stay on the vine.
- Endurance at low temperatures (in the presence of a holistic structure, the vine tolerates frosts down to -23 ° C).
- Resistance to diseases that are often found when growing grapes, is 2.5 - 3 points (oidium, powdery mildew, gray mold).
And one more pleasant moment for summer residents - Baikonur grapes do not like wasps. Based on all of the above, the variety can be called ideal, if not for one “but” - it is not well understood. This is dangerous because in an unfavorable season, a crop can show itself in a new way, and the owner will not know how to avoid crop losses.
The disadvantages of grapes Baikonur also include the lack of information about the optimal formation of bushes, which is important for the proper development of the nursery and rich fruiting.
The third "minus" of grapes is the presence of seeds in the berries. But rarely, what kind of grape can boast of their complete absence, while Baikonur has only 1 - 3 small seeds. During the meal, they are easily swallowed and practically not felt.
Baikonur grapes: rules of planting and care
Planting of young stock is practiced on a sunny, windless place on the south side of the house. The building will protect the plants from the wind, and from the south they will receive heat and sunlight. The culture takes root on any soils, except clay. It is easy to breed a nursery at a small elevation, under which at a depth of 2.5 m and below lie groundwater. The ideal option is pure black soil.
Pits for seedlings are dug in a row, observing some conditions:
- A distance of 3 m is left between the holes.
- 4 m indent is made between rows.
- The depth of the well - from 80 cm (part of the recess will be occupied by the nutrient mixture).
Baikonur seedlings of grapes can be bought, and you can grow yourself at home using cuttings. A healthy shrub has a white rhizome and green fresh cut. High-quality specimens after purchase are dipped in water by day.
In the landing pit bush immersed so that the root of the neck slightly elevated above the ground. Soil the hole is filled up carefully after the nutrient composition. There should be no air among the layers of soil, otherwise the roots will dry out. The plant is abundantly watered, the surrounding soil is mulched.
Grafting to the rootstock
If the vineyard is formed from cuttings, the old planting is cut, leaving a small penechki (10 cm). The cut is smoothly cleaned and a split is made under the cutting in the center of the stock. Place vaccinations covered with clay or paraffin. The second method is better, since paraffin retains moisture to rooting. The stock is watered, the ground is mulched.
Baikonur grape care events are traditional:
- Watering is carried out in the spring before the flowering of the nursery, during the formation of the ovary and persistent heat. Each watering is completed by mulching the soil with a shtambu with stubborn sawdust or moss. Mulching with organic materials protects plantations from frost and possible diseases.
- Fertilizing fertilizing specimens make annually, using nitrogenous compounds, humus, potassium phosphate fertilizers.
- Pruning spend a long (form the bushes in the fall and immediately prepare cuttings). Old foliage is recommended to burn.
- For winter, seedlings are covered regardless of weather forecasts. Large bushes are hidden under the film "corridors".
- Preventive spraying with “Carbis Top” is arranged every year before the grapes bloom.
Being aware of the high resistance of the variety to diseases, many gardeners do not wish to spray Baikonur grapes for prophylactic purposes. You should not neglect the event, because it does not affect the taste and volume of the crop, but it does not spoil it with mildew and oidium.
"Baikonur" - table grapes
The name itself is impressive, isn't it? So what is behind such big words? Baikonur is a grape variety with very valuable qualities. In addition, it is remarkably fruiting, which is important.
The Baikonur grape variety is the result of amateur breeding. And the famous winegrower Pavlovsky EG brought him out. In order to get a new look, he used the varieties "Talisman" and "Pretty Woman".
The result is a wonderful grape with excellent stability. It adapts well in all regions of our country, it is grown even in the Moscow region (although it is forced to cover it). This type is intended solely for human consumption, because this contributes to the wonderful taste. Here is such a wonderful grape "Baikonur". Description of the variety, as you can see, says that it is worthy of the closest attention, because not every species can boast of such remarkable properties.
Baikonur (grapes): description
We have previously said that the Baikonur grape has excellent taste. In addition, it is distinguished by large elegant clusters, which are its hallmark. They have a conical or cylindrical shape and very large sizes.
The berries are not located tightly, with the result that the clusters have a structure of moderate looseness. The average bunch weight ranges from 400 to 700 grams. But this is a very average value. The fact is that with proper regular feeding and normal pruning large grapes weighing more than one kilogram are formed. “Baikonur” is an unusual grape. The beauty of the bunch is provided by berries, which have an attractive color and large sizes. The average weight of each is about twelve to sixteen grams. I would like to note that the berries have an unusual elongated elongated shape. Each of them can reach four centimeters.
In general, once having seen the “Baikonur” grapes (the photos are given in the article), you will not be able to confuse it with other varieties. As for the color range, the skin of the berries has a purple, dark cherry or even red-purple color. In addition, they are covered with a layer of wax of a very dark, lilac color.
The taste of grapes
Speaking about this variety, you can not keep silent about its taste. The berries have a rather dense structure, and while digging through them, you will hear a characteristic crunch. In general, grapes have an interesting and harmonious taste. It contains light fruit notes. Although the skin is rather dense, it is easily eaten away and does not cause discomfort. Some varieties have such a hard surface that you just have to throw it away, because it is very difficult to swallow the berry. In the variety "Baikonur" nothing like this is observed.
If we choose a variety for planting at home, then the “Baikonur” grapes, reviews of which eloquently speak for themselves, are a very good and worthy option. The advantages of the variety include good sugar accumulation (at least 20%). And the fruit is just wonderful.
How well do the fruits of the grapes?
"Baikonur" - grapes, which are characterized by tall bushes. He gives strong shoots, which affects the high yield. Sometimes so many grapes are formed that they need to be removed by artificial means, since the plant is simply not able to withstand such weight. Moreover, a large number of brushes leads to the grinding of berries.
If we talk about the period of ripening of grapes, then it occurs approximately one hundred and ten days after the bushes enter the vegetation process. This means that this variety is very early, because the first bunches can begin to shoot in early August. But this does not mean that the grapes need to be urgently removed from the bush - it is well stored on it. And at the same time neither appearance, nor flavoring characteristics do not spoil.
For what people immediately fell in love with "Baikonur", so it is for its beautiful presentation. For those who grow grapes just for sale, and not for themselves, this moment is very important.
Advantages of the variety "Baikonur"
Let's summarize some results on what the “Baikonur” grape is. A detailed description allows you to highlight its main advantages:
- Wonderful presentation.
- Excellent taste.
- Early aging.
- Suitability for transportation and long-term storage (berries do not crumble and deteriorate).
- Resistant to diseases.
On the vine bush flowers are located female and male. And this is an absolute guarantee of pollination of absolutely all flowers.
It means that there will be no empty or un-pollinated grapes. The dense skin of the berry protects it from cracking even with significant changes in air humidity and soil.
In addition, this variety is good because during that period of cultivation it was not observed that it was damaged by wasps, who love to spoil the berries of sweet varieties. Baikonur is resistant to fungal diseases such as gray rot, powdery mildew, and oidium.
This culture is quite cold resistant. The bush normally carries winter frosts up to - 23 degrees. Of course, plants should be sheltered for the winter.
The Baikonur grape variety received a very high expert assessment. Testimonials from winegrowers say that this species can be ranked as one of the best modern hybrid forms. The variety is quite worthy to acquire market status.
Among the many positive characteristics there is one minus. Since Baikonur is a very young and new variety, naturally, it has been little studied. Of course, its characteristics say a lot, but there is no guarantee that under certain conditions in one of the years it can manifest itself differently.
For some people, a significant drawback is the presence of seeds in the grapes. Each Baikonur berry can contain from one to three small bones that are not felt during the meal.
How to plant grapes?
Very often, people want to plant their backyard at the same time and get a good harvest. That is why grape bushes are often planted as a decor, closing them with arbors, arches, houses.
If you are going to plant grapes, the variety "Baikonur" will certainly suit you. However, everything must be approached with skill. Including, and for planting seedlings. This should be done correctly and at the right time, otherwise you can not get any greens or harvest.
Grapes are propagated in many different ways, which are identical in efficiency, but you need to know some of the nuances.
If you have never had any vines on a plot before, then you will plant it in the form of seedlings. Such a method in this case is most acceptable.
If you choose a Baikonur grape sapling, it will have all the disadvantages and advantages of this variety. It will grow gradually, and will begin to bear fruit only in the third or fourth year.
There is another way for plant propagation - this is grafting. It will suit you if you want to replace the existing variety with a new one. What is good about this method is that a very young plant immediately has a reserve of perennial wood, as well as a very developed root system. It plays a big role in more rapid development. This bush will begin to bear fruit much earlier.
But there are also disadvantages. The variety of the cutting itself and the grafted stock are not always compatible. And it is possible that such a situation, when the qualities of the old variety appear on the new bush.
Breeding method of withdrawal
Another method of propagation of grapes is a method of withdrawal. In this case, the grape bush itself must be present, it will be withdrawn from it. A good strong runaway is taken and powdered with earth. After some time, he will give roots and become an independent plant. That's when it can be separated from the main bush, and transplanted to a completely different place. Elbows can be formed throughout the year.
How to choose a place for landing?
Best of all, vines grow in sunny, warm places, where there are no drafts and strong winds. After all, no wonder that grapes are considered to be southern plants. Therefore, the best place to land will be the south side of your home.
The shadow will not fall on the bush, and the house will become a cover from the wind. However, pay attention to the relief of your land. Grapes love to grow on hills and hills. To the soils, “Baikonur” is not very whimsical. The main condition is the occurrence of groundwater at a depth of at least two and a half meters. I would like to note that clay soils do not fit the grapes at all, they are poorly absorbed by moisture, which means that a bush may be oversaturated. Ideal light soil, such as black soil.
Proper planting bushes
Need to be able to properly plant bushes. Thick plantings will interfere with each other and shade the place. Therefore, it is important to have the bushes at the correct distance. For the variety “Baikonur” the distance between the seedlings must be at least three meters. But between the rows it makes sense to maintain a distance of four meters.
There is enough time for planting grapes into the ground. You can start from the end of March and plant until the summer. The only thing to be remembered is that for each period there are nuances.
In early spring, begin to plant those plants that were stored in the fall. From the middle of the spring can be formed bends. With the advent of stable heat, green plants are planted.
Autumn planting is possible when the plants enter a state of rest. During this period, you can harvest planting material. But the pull with the landing also not worth it. Frosts can come, and then the seedlings will be damaged if they are not covered.
Planting plants in early autumn is also not recommended, because they can actively grow, and freeze in winter.
How to plant a cutting?
To properly plant a bush, prepare a hole in advance (two to three weeks). The depth should be such that all fertilizers and seedlings fit (about eighty centimeters).
Fertile soil is poured along with humus to the bottom. They should sift carefully so that the sapling does not fall below the ground. Some more soil is poured from above.
If you get a grape cutting, then by all means pay attention to its root system, which must be healthy and have a white color. The top cut of the plant should be green. Before planting, the plant roots must be placed in water.
During planting, the plant is deepened into the ground only up to the root collar, it can even be slightly elevated above the ground. The hole is filled up gradually, leaving no voids. Next, the plant is plentifully watered (up to three buckets of water), after which the soil is sprinkled with sawdust, covered with straw. This will hold moisture in the ground.
Grafting is a simple and good way to grow grapes, if, of course, you already have a shrub on the plot. Cuttings prepared in advance. The lower part is trimmed (on both sides), which allows for more intimate contact between the stock and the handle. Pre-cutting falls into the water. It can be treated with paraffin so that the plant does not dry before rooting.
Stock prepared before vaccination. The old plant is completely cut off, only the stump remains. The cut surface must be smooth and clean. Then on the stock is the middle and form a split on it. It should be shallow.
The stalk is thrust into the split, after which this place is tightly tightened and covered with wet clay. The plant is watered, and the soil is covered with straw.
Harvest - good care
Shrubs regularly in the spring before flowering need to be watered. Moisture is needed by plants and during the formation of the crop. After each watering the soil must be mulched. For these purposes, sawdust, straw, moss.
Top dressings are made annually. You can use humus, nitrogen, potassium phosphate fertilizers. Pruning plants is best done in the fall, then you can prepare cuttings. In addition, the bushes for the winter necessarily cover.
For preventive purposes, the grapes are sprayed every year before flowering.
As already mentioned, this variety was grown in the garden of an ordinary gardener, E. G. Pavlovsky. But the interesting fact is that the breeder did not use any biotechnology and innovative methods. Everything was done in a purely "old-fashioned" way. And for the basis he took such varieties as "Talisman" and "Pretty Woman".
It is this combination that gave rise to so many positive qualities that grapes now have. It should also be noted that Beauty was the least attacked by wasps and it is less resistant to temperature extremes. While the talisman has high acidity and sugar content. And before Krasotki and Talisman there were several other varieties that became the basis for the Baikonur variety.
Apparently Pavlovsky not one day bred this variety. And constantly through small defeats and victories achieved the desired result. Moreover, Pavlovsky himself conducted the first experiments. He transported the grapes over long distances and rechecked the data several times. And then other winegrowers joined the experiments. At the moment the project is still under development. It is grown, it is monitored and a video with useful information is left on the Internet. Therefore, any gardener can grow this beautiful variety at his dacha or garden plot and leave his description, new varieties, photos, reviews to the baikonur grapes.
What is the peculiarity of this variety
The Baikonur grape, despite being sectioned by an amateur, received great recognition among winegrowers. After all, the fruits of grapes have many valuable and useful properties. But he also gives a good harvest. By themselves, the berries are large, slightly elongated.The weight of each berry reaches from 12 to 16 grams. The shell of the berry has a reddish-purple hue. And when you pick a berry, the skin does not feel, although it is dense. Waxing is allowed during ripening.
Now the flesh. It is very fleshy, and crunches when the berry bite through. Inside there can be seeds from 1 to 3 pieces. The taste is very harmonious, and filled with a fruit bouquet. Sugar is not more than 20%.
Clusters grow into a long, conical shape. Sometimes you can see small "wings" on the sides. Berries that are closer to the center and do not burst. And the weight of the bunch itself reaches 1 kilogram.
The ripening period is 105 - 115 days. And it happens in early August.
Another feature of the Baikonur grape can be noted its resistance to transport. By themselves, the berries are very dense and therefore not compressed during transportation. But, the fruits also sit firmly on clusters, and do not disintegrate.
It is immediately obvious that a lot of effort was put into creating this sort. After all, if you do not harvest at the time and leave the bunches to hang even after ripening, this will not change the taste.
Grape bush is big. And the leaves on it are large and dissected. The grapes can withstand temperatures down to -23 o C. More precisely, it is the cold resistance of the kidneys. But it should still be covered for the winter.
Briefly about the virtues of grapes Baikonur
- nice appearance, large size of fruits, great taste,
- grapes ripen in the early stages
- resistance to long-term storage and transportation
- flowers varieties have bisexual, which improves pollination and gives a positive result,
- the berries do not crack from the temperature difference due to the thick skin,
- Baikonur has increased resistance to wasp disease,
- the grade possesses good immunity to such fungal diseases as: mealy dew, oidium, and also gray decay,
- resistance to frost (ideally the bushes can withstand temperatures up to -23 o C),
- It is currently considered one of the best varieties that can be put up for sale.
What kind is it?
it table variety with early ripening berries. The advantage of a table variety is that it is long preserves the presentation.
Berries, as a rule, grow much larger than technical varieties. They are more fleshy, fragrant, well suited for eating and cooking homemade compotes, jams, pastries, etc.
Grapes "Baikonur": description of the variety
Grape bushes are strong, tall, wide, characterized by a rapid growth rate.
Leaves large, green. This variety looks good as a decoration of a country plot.
Grape bunch rather large, cylindrical-conical (or conical). Vine medium density, but can be loose.
The average size is 400-600 grams, and with good care it reaches 700-800 grams.
Berries large (up to 3-4 cm), elongated nipple-shaped, 12-16 grams each.
The berries have a pronounced flavor and rich dark purple (almost black) color.
Pulp aromatic, dense, fleshy and juicy. The skin is dense. Inside the berries 2-3 seeds.
The taste is harmonious, sweet with sour notes.
More clearly see the grapes "Baikonur" can be found below:
Breeding history and breeding region
Baikonur appeared as a result of amateur breeding. He appeared thanks to the famous winegrower and breeder Pavlovsky EG
The hand of this breeder belong to the monarch, Ayut Pavlovsky, Korolek.
To obtain Baikonur, the Talisman and Krasotka varieties were selected, which Pavlovsky also worked on at one time.
"Mascot" - donor sustainability, "Beautiful girl" presented the characteristic shape and color of the berries.
Due to good adaptation and sustainability, the variety is zoned in different territories of the country.
It can be grown even in the Moscow region, but only in as a covering culture.
Grapes "Baikonur" - a thermophilic plant, so it is best adapted to the southern areas.
The grade well fructifies. Shoots take root quickly, vigorous bushes, shoots mature very quickly and intensively.
As a result, the branches will begin to break under the weight of the berries or the clusters will grow too small, since the plant does not have enough strength to grow and ripen a large amount of berries.
The term of ripening of berries begins after 100-115 days from the growing season. Berries can be removed in the first half of August.
With the harvest, you can not rush, as they are able for a long time do not lose their presentation and taste while remaining on the bush.
It is believed that Baikonur has increased frost resistance. It can withstand cold winters when the temperature drops below 15-20 degrees.
Among the cold-resistant varieties can be distinguished Beauty of the North, Pink Flamingo and Super Extra.
The disadvantage of the variety is that while it is little studied in terms of growing conditions. There is no unequivocal opinion on the formations in which the bush will develop better.
Diseases and pests
Currently, breeders are studying the resistance of a variety to diseases and pests. While it is possible to make the assumption that by mildew, gray rot, oidium it is about 2.5-3 points. Gardener need to pay attention prevention the emergence of diseases and pests. Fighting them will be much harder.
- in the fall, you need to regularly prune, collect and destroy old foliage (it is better to burn),
- at the same time, they dig deep the soil around the head of the bush and carry out mulching until the cold season begins,
- organic materials are used as mulch - this will not only prevent you from diseases, but will also protect the bush from frost,
- it is necessary to monitor the timeliness of the garter of growing vines, as well as to trim the bush in time,
- during the flowering period to protect from oidium and mildew will help treatment with the drug "Carbis Top".
Many gardeners are afraid to do the treatment of the bushes for preventive purposes, although it should be done on the taste and the crop is not a negative impact.
Baikonur - a good table grape variety. It is valued for its taste and product quality, as well as a beautiful aesthetic appearance. Grape bushes with good care provide annual abundant crops.
High yields are also distinguished varieties Rkatsiteli, Alex, Gift Magaracha.
TO disadvantages can be attributed poor knowledge of the varietyTherefore, it is necessary to carefully consider the conditions for growing grapes, as well as timely prevention of diseases.
Among the beautiful grape varieties can also be noted Chocolate, Taifi and Romeo.
The origin of grapes Baikonur
Baikonur is a grape variety created by an amateur breeder. This is how the history of our country develops, that in recent decades the most successful grape varieties have come out of the hands of enthusiasts who devote all their free time to their hobbies. One of these lovers is the breeder E. G. Pavlovsky, who 6 years ago published the very successful hybridization of the famous grape varieties Krasotka and Talisman. Immediately after the appearance of Baikonur, he was predicted a major success and popularity.
In the very first year, Baikonur was named a promising variety, since it took only the best positive qualities from the original parental forms. Pretty woman gave him a wonderful presentation and transportability of berries, and the Talisman gave him large fruit, delicious taste and resistance to adverse weather conditions. Created as a result of their crossing, Baikonur has the ability to adapt to any climatic conditions and can be grown both in the south and in the central regions.
Baikonur has a very beautiful "mom" - Beauty variety grapes
Of course, since the variety is still new, all the nuances of its behavior are unknown. So, the statistics of his attitude to various grape diseases has not yet been collected, but so far in this respect Baikonur receives only positive reviews. His seedlings and cuttings on the market are in high demand.
The bush at Baikonur is very high and fast-growing: young shoots can reach 4 meters per season. It is propagated both by cuttings and by grafting in shtamb or shoots of other varieties, the yield does not depend on it. The leaves are ordinary, large, bright green. Without rationing the crop, that is, removing part of the clusters, which are tied very much, the vine may not have time to ripen for winter, but the bush tends to preserve all the berries and bring them to a ripe state. Frost resistance at the level of most modern varieties: grapes can withstand temperatures of -23 o C.
The variety is self-fertile: due to the oboyopole of the flowers of replanting other bushes for the purpose of pollination is not required. In terms of ripening can be attributed to the super-storey: it happens that the first berries ripen by the end of July, but usually in the middle belt the main harvest occurs in mid-August. At the same time, the clusters do not ripen at the same time, the last specimens are removed in the fall.
The mass of clusters is uneven: if the fastest rarely weigh more than 0.5 kg, then those ripening by the autumn reach a kilogram. Clusters in general are not very dense, but lush and beautiful. The harvest is very high, and for its maintenance the bushes need reinforced supports: trellis based on strong pillars and several rows of thick, horizontally stretched wire.
The clusters of Baikonur are beautiful and rather large, although the color is probably normal.
The fruits of Baikonur are very large, their shape is close to cylindrical, up to 4 cm long. The mass of the berry reaches 16 g. The main color is dark-violet, but in one bunch there may be instances of almost black and dark lilac, all they are in a state of approximately the same ripeness. The berries have a thin dark wax coating that protects them from accidental damage and enhances the ability of the crop to be transported over long distances.
A positive quality is the fact that the variety does not require immediate harvest when it ripens: clusters can stay on the bushes for a long time without deterioration of their taste and appearance. This allows us to recommend Baikonur and those growers who grow crops for sale. Clusters are well stored and transported.
Features of planting and cultivation of the Baikonur grape variety
Baikonur grapes differ little in agricultural technology from other varieties of similar purpose and ripening period, some features are made perhaps by the very large size of its bushes: because of their solidity, the distance to neighboring bushes of the same or another variety, as well as to any other garden plants maybe less than three meters.
The variety has an excellent rooting rate for cuttings and can be easily propagated by this well-known technique.
Experiments of enthusiasts, even in the middle lane, proved that there is no need to grow seedlings from cuttings in an apartment: even during the spring planting of the last year’s cuttings that awoke, they manage to take root and form good seedlings by autumn.
Like any grape, Baikonur demands that it be planted on the brightest site, protected from cold winds. The soil is picky, but the best - light, breathable. Groundwater should not be closer than two meters to the ground. Abundant fertilizer with well-rotted manure is required on any soils. The optimal landing time depends on the region, but it is better to plant in April.
The depth of the planting pit is chosen depending on the type of soil: from 60 cm on the lungs to 80 cm on the clay. In arid regions even greater depths are required. In the case of heavy soils, the drainage layer in the pit is mandatory. In connection with the powerful growth of Baikonur bushes, it requires the application of increased doses of fertilizers to the bottom of the pit. It is planted like any other grape, leaving no more than two buds on the surface. Abundantly watered and mulch the soil around the seedling.
Compared with other grape varieties, Baikonur and watering requires more frequent and abundant, especially during the harvest. If the summer is dry, then light irrigation is possible during berry picking, but in normal weather 2-3 weeks before they ripen, watering is not carried out. Top dressing is performed every year: humus in early spring, wood ash in summer and spraying the foliage with weak solutions of mineral fertilizers shortly before flowering and immediately after it. As for the fight against diseases, today no cases of serious diseases of this grape have been described, since most gardeners necessarily carry out preventive spraying with iron or copper sulphate in early spring and with preparations like Ridomil Gold in the multi-leaf stage.
Apparently, it will not be possible to do without preventive sprays in growing Baikonur
Mandatory correct pruning of bushes and rationing of the crop. Baikonur vine has short internodes, so at least 10 well-developed eyes are left on each fruitful shoot. Although, on the other hand, even the formation of its bushes is still debated, because the variety has not been fully investigated.
Shelter for the winter is carried out, like in most modern frost-resistant grape varieties. In the south, Baikonur can winter without shelter, in other regions of the vine in the fall, after leaf fall, should be removed from the trellis and wrapped with light non-woven material or covered with spruce leaves.
History of growing grapes variety Baikonur
Baikonur is one of the newest grape varieties found in our gardens, including among summer cottage enthusiasts. It was bred quite recently, but has already gained popularity and is recognized as one of the most promising varieties for wide distribution. More precisely, probably, it should be said, not varieties, but hybrids, but winegrowers usually do not use this term, since most modern grape varieties (and there are a huge number of them) are, in fact, hybrids, having two or more ancestors in their pedigree.
Grapes as an agricultural crop have been known for a very long time; many scientists have worked and are working on the cultivation of promising varieties; they create new varieties and amateur breeders. Of course, most of the results of such works do not go “in series”, but some are so successful that they immediately predict a happy future. Baikonur refers precisely to the second case.
The variety was bred only a few years ago: Amateur breeder Pavlovsky EG released it to “people” in 2012. Born hybrid from crossing well-known grape varieties Talisman and Pretty Woman.
Baikonur is not at all like one of the parents - Talisman - in the shape and color of the berries, but took from it the properties of a strong plant
As often happens, he took from his parents all the best properties. So, Talisman is zoned in many regions of our country, as it matures even in the conditions of a short summer and is resistant to the vagaries of the weather. Popularity won for a pleasant taste and very large berries. The beauty has a wonderful presentation, her clusters are distinguished by high transportability.
The second parent - Pretty Woman - bears that name for a reason
Baikonur seedlings are in great demand because the variety produces high yields, the berries are attractive and very tasty. Unfortunately, at present, all the properties of the variety have not yet been sufficiently studied, and it will not be possible to give it a complete and objective description, but among the reviews of winegrowers in its orchards, there are mostly extremely enthusiastic words.
Baikonur adopted from its ancestors resistance to changing weather conditions, the ability to quickly adapt to an unusual place.
The significant shortcomings of Baikonur have not yet been described, but one must clearly realize that, for example, the resistance of grapes to diseases and pests can be judged only after statistics on its cultivation in various areas for at least a decade have been collected.
Characteristics of the grape variety Baikonur
Having considered the basic properties of the Baikonur grape, you can try to give it a generalizing characteristic. Its main advantages are:
- early ripening in conjunction with the length of fruiting,
- the ability of ripe berries to stay on the bush for a long time without losing the properties
- harmonious taste
- the size of the clusters and each berry,
- total high yield,
- excellent presentation
- cracking resistance,
- transportability and long-term storage capacity
- absence of small berries in clusters,
- the presence on the bush, both male and female flowers,
- high frost resistance
- adaptability to changing weather conditions,
- resistance to fungal diseases, as well as wasp damage.
The Baikonur variety can be called one of the best among similar varieties. There are very few flaws, in particular:
- the presence in each berry of 1-3 not always easily detachable bones,
- poor, at the moment, the study of varieties in terms of incidence: perhaps in this regard, Baikonur in some years can bring unpleasant surprises.
Video: about the strength and frost resistance of the variety
The berry is very large, up to 4.5 cm, it easily falls down, has a nipple-shaped berry, a very beautiful dark color. The cluster is semi-dry, looks elegant ... The flesh is thick, juicy, harmonious taste, but not quite simple.
Fursa Irina Ivanovna
Hybrid form B-9-1, the current name of Baikonur is observed for the second year. Last year, the harvest was on seedling. This year, he compared the results of fruiting on a seedling and on a graft bush, the results are close, and on a more powerful graft bush, the berries are larger. Very well preserved on the bushes, matured at the end of July, and I shot a bunch of August 17, and the next day after a heavy rain - no changes. The berry of Baikonur is purple-red with a dark blue, almost black shade. One of the best new products in recent years, which I have seen.
Baikonur looks very worthy. I really envy the owner of this beauty. Alas, this year I didn’t work with this form - none of the three vaccinations got accustomed ... But in the fall I purchased cuttings and in the spring I still need the graft. I think everything will work out. I think this form will be a good decoration for any vineyard.
Video: bush with a harvest of berries variety Baikonur
Growing grapes Baikonur is no more difficult to grow any varietal grapes and is available to most summer residents with basic gardening skills. High commodity qualities of Baikonur give the right to consider it a variety suitable not only for personal farms, but also promising for cultivation on an industrial scale.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
If you compare Baikonur with similar grape varieties, then it should be recognized that it is one of the best in the circle of varieties of a very early period of fruiting. It is difficult to give very high marks, because the variety is still poorly understood, but it is believed that it is no worse than, for example, Libya, and the well-known Arcadia may eventually get around in the ranking.
The main advantages of the variety are:
- very early ripening and at the same time the duration of fruiting,
- the preservation of the berries on the bushes without deterioration
- excellent, peculiar taste,
- abundant harvests
- attractive appearance
- crack resistance to cracking,
- the ability to transport and long-term storage,
- no pea,
- flower number,
- good frost resistance
- adaptability to unfamiliar climatic conditions
- resistance to major diseases, as well as flying insects.
There are still few drawbacks, for example:
- the presence in the berries of several not very easily detachable bones,
- insufficient, as of today, awareness of the variety in terms of the propensity to disease: it is possible that from this point Baikonur in bad years can spoil the impression of itself.
The berry is very large, up to 4.5 cm. It easily falls down, has a nipple-shaped berry, a very beautiful dark color. The cluster is semi-dry, looks elegant. The grapes are almost ripe at the moment (the level of ripening is approximately GF Rochefort), you can judge by the bone on my hand, which is only one for such a large berry. Not bad! The flesh is thick, juicy, harmonious taste, but not quite simple. I regret that the tone of taste of the GF berries Baikonur is more difficult to describe, because today I tried many different kinds of berries of different GF in the Pavlovsky selection area ... Everything was mixed ... But one thing I can say is that this grape deserves our attention and has a good perspective, even judging by first fruiting. Well, I agree that it is not necessary to answer for everyone ... But I personally will have such grapes on my plot.
Fursa Irina Ivanovna
Hybrid form B-9-1, the current name of Baikonur is observed for the second year. Last year, the harvest was on seedling. This year, he compared the results of fruiting on a seedling and on a graft bush, the results are close, and on a more powerful graft bush, the berries are larger. Very well preserved on the bushes, matured at the end of July, and I shot a bunch of August 17, and the next day after a heavy rain - no changes. I think that a couple of left bunches will live safely to the festival in Yalta. The berry of Baikonur is purple-red with a dark blue, almost black shade. One of the best new products in recent years, which I have seen.
My Baikonur fruit first. In the green state from the rain did not burst, although it flooded us decently. In the mature - also behaved consistently. The problem was one - uneven staining of the berries in the bunch. I liked the taste very much, but there was no crunching of the berry, there was marmalade.
How to plant grapes Baikonur
In viticulture, there are three seasonal vaccinations: spring, summer and autumn. And vaccinations depend on the area in which the grapes are grown. If these are northern and problem areas, then it is better to vaccinate in spring or summer so that the cuttings can take root. But in warm areas, autumn vaccination is best suited. But, since this variety is considered to be cold-resistant, the discussion will deal with the northern regions.
Gardeners who have already tested a new variety, recommend making a graft by splitting or by copulating.
There are also several ways of grafting cuttings: black to black, green to black, black to green, green to green.
A lot of combinations. But first you need to decide on the terms.
Black is when the sprout or stalk was cut last year.
Green is when the sprout or stalk is cut this year.
Gardeners believe that the option of a green to green is suitable for a successful vaccination, since the cuttings are still in the developmental stage and there are more chances that it will take root. But since this is the Baikonur variety, many gardeners have noticed that the graft black to black method is also suitable for it.
Video: specialist opinion on the variety
Agri-technology of grapes Baikonur does not differ from the agrotechnology of other varieties of table grapes; the variety can be recommended to the majority of summer residents who have mastered the basic techniques of working in the garden plot. Excellent commodity qualities of berries allow Baikonur to be considered a variety created for individual small plots, and for cultivation in large farms for commercial use.
Features of growing
Baikonur grapes are best grown in cold areas. Since its bushes are cold-resistant. But due to the fact that this variety has just begun its long and thorny path, there are no exact recommendations for its planting. All methods are the trial and error methods of not only the author, but also other winegrowers.
The internodes of the shoots are very short, so you need to trim not less than 10 eyes. But the trimming is done in the fall and in the spring (optional).
If you grow grapes in problem areas, then the vaccine should be done no later than March to ensure better survival of the graft itself.
The revolutionary nature of this variety is that its clusters are very large, the berries are juicy and fleshy, and the grapes are resistant to many external factors. Therefore, it is easier to grow than other varieties. But its main feature is that its payback is much higher than that of other varieties.
The only disadvantage of this variety, perhaps, is that it has not yet passed a lot of tests. Ie, while amateur gardeners speak about him well. But how he will behave in the future is unclear.
How to plant cuttings of grapes Baikonur
Experienced gardeners recommend planting Baikonur grapes cuttings straight into the ground. And it should be done on the sunny side of the site. And best of all on a slope or elevation. Ideally, the north side should be covered with trees. But if they are not there, it would be better to build a fence to protect the grapes from the cold northern winds. At the same time the soil should be fertile and light. For this, experienced gardeners recommend chernozem and slurry soil. Landing begins in March and before the summer.
In order for the cuttings to take root, it is necessary to dig pits 80 cm deep along the slope, right up to the planting (somewhere between 2 and 3 weeks), and that the distance be at least 4 m.
The pits need to be filled with compost or peat, which is pre-mixed with a fertile layer of soil. All pits with the resulting mass are filled with water. And after that you need to pour the ordinary land. Stick stick to the middle of the pit and as soon as all this mass settles, you need to remove the stick. At the cutting we make a cut across the stem (the cut is made 3 cm below the bud) and sits on the place where the stick was (the distance between the nodes of the knees must be at least 7 - 10 cm).
Then it is necessary to make small cuts on the bark, so that new roots will later sprout from them.
How to care for Baikonur grapes
This variety requires abundant watering. Only after planting the seedlings must be carefully watered (at least 3 buckets of water) so that the earth is viscous and moist. The following watering should also moisten the soil well. Gardeners recommend mulching the soil so that the moisture evaporates as little as possible. For this fit moss, straw or sawdust. During the next watering, the mulch shifts a little, the soil is watered, and then it is put back in place.
It is also necessary to periodically feed the soil with fertilizers so that they contain potassium, phosphate or nitrogen. And under the roots you need to lay the compost.
In autumn, before the beginning of winter, it is necessary to cut the vine (as already mentioned, no more than 10 buds). This is usually done at the end of October, when the foliage is completely showered.
During pruning, experienced gardeners prepare cuttings for planting next year in advance.
When the first frost hits, the vineyard is laid on the ground and covered. But if the tapestries are so heavily entwined that it is not possible to put the vine, you need to do something like a greenhouse around them. And before the bushes begin to bloom, it is necessary to spray from pests and insects.
As you can see, the grape variety is still new and untested. But gardeners are already in full praise this unique invention of the breeder - amateur EG Pavlovsky. Grapes have a high resistance to temperature differences very juicy and fleshy berries, as well as good tolerance of various fungal diseases and attacks of wasps.