Ardashirov S.S. - Senior Researcher, Sadykova R.R. - junior researcher,
FSBU Bashkir Research Institute of Agriculture
Proper organization of feeding animals in the summer period plays a huge role in improving productivity and strengthening their health. In the summer period, the advanced farms of the republic receive 60-70% of the annual milk production.
The main food in the summer is grass. Green grass is a cheap source of essential nutrients necessary for the body of animals. According to laboratory analyzes, the grass is the most complete, rich in minerals, vitamins.
For example, 1 kg of grass contains: 0.25-0.27 feed. units, ECE - 0.33, the content of crude protein - 0.48 g, including digestible - 30 g, starch - 7.20 g, sugar - 23 grams and carotene - 35 mg.
The need of cattle in green fodder is 60-70 kg per day per cow, and for the whole summer period about 6-7 tons.
Sources of green fodder in farms and among the population are natural and cultivated pastures.
Pasture feeding of cattle is the most effective both in terms of getting cheap milk and for animal health.
It has been proven by science and practice that dairy cows should be provided with highly productive pastures at the rate of 0.25-0.3 ha per head.
At the same time, it is necessary to organize their correct use - the herd grazing system. Therefore, it is recommended to place pastures directly in the vicinity of the cattle-breeding complex or a summer camp so that the cattle stage is no more than 1.5-2 km from the livestock-breeding premises to the pasture.
Especially important pasture content for the cultivation of repair young cattle.
The economic indicators of the republic's advanced farms indicate that with the grazing of young stock, labor costs are reduced by 2 times as compared with the stall maintenance and feeding of green mass in the feeders.
With grazing, the youngsters move freely in the air, it develops better, therefore, ultimately, these animals are healthier than those that are stally.
Scientists have shown that the best results can be obtained in the case when, 3/4 of the annual increase will be obtained on pasture.
Important in increasing meat production and improving its quality is correct feeding of young stock. Feeding is affordable and profitable from an economic point of view, because
green fodder is full and cheapest. Therefore, with proper organization, live weight in young animals increases by 65-70%.
In order to maximize the use of pastures, they should be divided into lawns and planted alternately. For the herd of young cattle in 100 heads for different types of pastures, we can recommend approximately such areas:
- perennial grasses of 2.5-3.5 hectares,
- dry pastures of 7-12 hectares,
- local pastures 9-15 ha.
Pasture areas should be located at a distance of no more than 2 km from the place of watering. Feeding of young stock usually lasts 130-150 days.
The need of young stock for green mass depends on the quality of grass stand on pasture.
On average, to get one kilogram of gain, feeding youngsters with a live weight of 100-150 kg should consume about 18-20 kg of green grass per day.
Flooded lands are of great value in feed production. However, they are underutilized for grazing livestock and green fodder. Today, the challenge is to make greater use of these reserves of fodder production and increase their productivity.
At the same time, the pasture-grazing and herring-batch use of grass stands requires large expenditures on the creation of pastures. But these costs are incurred once every 4-5 years and are repaid many times by obtaining net income.
Grazing of animals has a positive effect on reproductive functions and significantly increases the time of use of dairy cows. In our conditions, grazing of beef cattle on improved natural pastures provides the highest return on investment.
Nested costs when grazing pay off 5-10 times.
The farms used to use pastures. But in recent years they have been used haphazardly and with great overload.
As a result, wormwood, fescue, tatarnik and other weeds were introduced into the grass pasture, instead of sown grass.
Currently, it is necessary to recreate cultivated pastures to satisfy animal feeds.
Cultivated pastures - these are fodder lands created by superficial or radical improvement of natural forage lands or forage of arable land, on which in a certain sequence driven-herd grazing of livestock and measures of care that help maintain high productive longevity are carried out. The creation of cultivated pastures for the surface improvement of natural forage lands is possible in the floodplains of rivers, in areas of meadows where a significant amount of valuable forage plants is contained in the herbage. One of the main conditions that determine the high yield of such grass stands is the correct selection of grass species, which should correspond to the location and fertility of the soil. For example, in the central parts of the floodplains of rivers, slopes and bottoms of beams, watersheds, it is recommended to sow meadow clover, yellow alfalfa, awnless brood, Timothy meadow fescue, and other forage crops.
The productivity of cultivated pastures increases if irrigation is applied. Irrigation of legume-cereal grass stands is most effective with a high content of legumes (50% and above).
To improve the efficiency of irrigation, it is necessary to periodically re-skin the old-growing grass stands.
Productive longevity of recommended grass mixtures on the territory of farms is determined by four to five years of use.
At the same time, grass stands of cultivated pastures should be used for taking away only grasses from the second year of life, since This period is necessary for the formation of a solid turf, and the subsequent grazing will not have a negative impact on the further productivity of pastures.
One of the main elements in the technology of the proper use of pastures is the observance of the timing, frequency and degree of grazing.
We recommend setting off sites with a height not lower than 10 cm, with a predominance of high grass, such as the rump and fescue, not less than 15 cm.
Usually, livestock are being herded from those pens where they had finished pasturing the previous fall.
Grazing of animals in the pen should be completed at a height of basal remains on low-grass grass stands at 3-4 cm, and on high-grass grass stands at 4-5 cm.
The second and subsequent cycles of etching should be carried out depending on the composition of the stand, after about 25-30 days with a height of low-grass plants 15-20 cm, and high-grass plants - 20-30 cm.
Thus, during the pasture period, it is possible to spend 3-4 cycles of etching. The average yield of palatability of green mass in one cycle is 60-65 c / ha.
Proper tillage, snow retention, the creation of forest belts are highly effective methods for the accumulation of moisture in the soil. But it is not possible to fully provide the plants with moisture in the household.
In recent years, adverse dry weather conditions have been observed in the Trans-Urals, Northeastern forest-steppe, where May-June droughts reach 50-60%.
Irrigation of crops in these and other areas where there is a shortage of water is an extremely effective measure. The average yield increase from irrigation of perennial grasses is from 250 to 320%
About pasture maintenance of cattle
In the summer, the grazing of cows is most beneficial and expedient. In addition to saving on feed, it allows you to maintain the health of the herd.
Being in nature, eating natural food, animals become hardened, become stronger - the heart, lungs, muscles strengthen.
Young animals develop correctly, grow more resilient, and their immunity is much better than that of livestock that spend their whole life indoors. How to organize walking on a pasture correctly, we will tell in this article.
How to choose a place for pasture
If you open any manual on the maintenance of cattle and look at the table of contents, we will see that a lot of attention has been paid to pasture maintenance.
However, his organization is not as simple as it seems at first glance to a non-professional. Not every place is suitable for grazing cows. First of all, pastures should be fairly abundant, grassy.
If the grass is withered, short, tough, then, of course, there will be no benefit from such food.
Secondly, the area where cattle will graze must be clean.
In the spring, before releasing animals, pasture is surveyed, stones, brushwood, carcasses and bones of animals, rotten grass, garbage, manure are removed.
It is unacceptable that a cattle cemetery or other graves should be located next to the pasture meadow.
Pasture should not be too far from the farm, otherwise the cows will get very tired on the way. The best distance is 2-3 km.
The place of shepherd must be chosen so that there is a watering place near it. However, the water source must be safe, so a sample is taken from it in advance and investigated in the laboratory.
So that the cow does not hurt its legs and does not get lost, choose flat, well-viewed terrain for pasture. Be sure to have shelters from the sun - trees or campsites.
What should be the grass
It is important not only the amount of grass, but also its quality. For cattle, cereals are best, as well as legumes. Wetlands are dangerous with poisonous greens and mollusks that carry worms.
Plants in these areas are poor in nutrients, which is why animals develop diseases caused by a lack of various micro and macro elements.
If there are swamp areas in the pasture, they must be fenced so that the cows do not go there.
Wooded areas are not suitable for grazing due to the fact that animals can injure their feet or udder. In addition, there are many ticks and other harmful insects in the forest zone.
They will not only disturb the cattle, but may also infect it with dangerous diseases or parasites.
In addition, there are few nutritive herbs here, and this has a bad effect on the productivity of dairy cows.
We provide the right watering.
Water sources for grazing for cattle may be different, but it is better not to use rainwater, as it has a poor mineral composition. However, if other options are not suitable, you can take it, but then the animals need to enter mineral supplements.
Artesian waters, which lie deep underground, on the contrary, have a rich composition. But sometimes they are supersaturated with salts and other substances. Cattle may refuse to drink such water or to experience even greater thirst.
If there is a river, a pond or a lake nearby, you need to make sure that the water is safe. The place chosen for the watering place needs to be enclosed and made comfortable for cows.
If there are no sources of water nearby, the drinkers make digging wells in the ground. Each time after the cows drank, the water is changed so that bacteria do not multiply there. For the same reason, it is not allowed to “sour” the soil around the drinker.
Remember that from the place of grazing to the water should be no more than 2 km for the cow to go there and back without getting tired.
Cows need to drink 3-4 times a day, in the heat - up to 5 times. Water temperature is also important. In the summer, the optimum is 16-20 degrees, in the winter 8-12.
For calves, the water temperature should always be 15-16 degrees.
We arrange the grazing of animals correctly.
Pasture maintenance has its own rules. So, it is impossible to graze animals during frosts, after a rain and on dew. This herb is harmful to the digestive system of cattle.
This is especially true of wet grasses that cows willingly eat in the morning after a night break. A small portion is not dangerous, but a large one will cause a timpani - bloating of the scar. This is a very unpleasant disease, fraught with complications.
For the same reason, before spring grazing, they first wait for the earth and grass to dry out, and only then release the herd.
In the period of summer heat, you need to make sure that at the height of the day the cows are in the shadow. Shelter cover is also required in case of strong wind or rain.
Cows must be scattered on grazing, do not follow each other and not gather in groups, otherwise some of the animals will remain hungry. Even on the pasture you need to have salt salt licks (50 grams per cow per day).
It is important to consider the age and sex of livestock. For grazing it is divided into groups:
- heifers, heifers over a year, cows,
- calves from 2 to 6 months
- calves from 6 to 12 months
- feeding animals.
At the same time, the best plots are given to calves, highly productive, as well as to deep-housing cows. Bulls older than 12 months are kept separate from the heifers, but there may be one male for every 50-60 cows in the herd.
Driven and distilled system: what is the difference
The driving system of cattle keeping is when the cattle sleeps on the farm, and during the day goes to the pasture 1.5-2 km away. Distant - when the pasture is farther than two kilometers.
Animals are delivered there, as a rule, by transport, and they are there permanently.
If the cattle is distilled to pasture, then watering points are put on the way every 5-7 km and animals are allowed to rest.
On distant pastures it is necessary to have professional shepherds. If the grazing area is above three kilometers from the familiar animal zone, they will need to adapt. Cows are overtaken on such pastures not immediately, but holding first on a lower elevation.
Camps are often organized on distant pastures created for cattle. They are located in the center of the grazing zone, providing a convenient way to bring in feed and cattle.
Than driven pasture better than free
Under a driven system, all pastures are divided into plots, which are used alternately.
The advantages of this method are that the herd is easier to control and easier to divide animals into groups.
If you use an electric fence, you can even do without a shepherd - no animal will run away anyway.
Forming pens, the plot encloses the wire stretched over the pillars. Better reinforced concrete posts, or wooden hardwood, section 15x15 cm.
The length is 200-220 cm, they are buried by 50-80 cm. The columns are placed at least 80 m apart. The area of the paddock should be 20-25 hectares, they produce 100-120 cows.
At one site grazing is 3-6 days, not longer.
With free herding, a cattle goes where it wants, eating the best grass. As a result, weeds and poisonous plants begin to dominate on the ground.
The territory eventually becomes unsuitable for grazing. In the driven system, cows are distilled from one site to another, giving time to re-feed the grasses.
It does not allow pasture to degenerate.
Advantages and disadvantages of the stall-pasture system
For stall-grazing cows do not need high costs, so it is often used in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as in the farm.
Among the advantages include a reduced need for space and the cost of the products obtained, the possibility of preventive measures during grazing, compactness, no transportation costs and distillation of the herd.
The drawbacks of such a system are obvious: in a limited area, only a certain number of cows can be kept, intensive trampling of grass occurs, especially in wet weather.
However, exercise is good for animals anyway. So, a calf born by a cow that spends enough time on grazing has better immunity compared to young cows, “domesticated”.
The free-range housing system is when animals are taken out for a walk into the pen after morning milking. In the corral, the cows spend 3-4 hours according to plan, but in reality it turns out less.
The fact is that a lot of time is spent on unleashing livestock, its withdrawal, pening and tying. This is the main drawback of such a system. In addition, in practice, pens are often small in size, and are too rarely brushed.
So there is a risk of disease in the herd.
In addition, such a walk animals are not enough, they do not receive the right amount of sunlight. This is bad for the health and productivity of livestock.
Nevertheless, the stall-walking system is convenient for both small and large enterprises that have a shortage of pasture. With proper organization, you can minimize the disadvantages of the system.
Grazing cow on a leash, tethered content
In farms where a tethered way of keeping livestock is practiced, each cow lives in a separate stall on a leash.
Plus that provides an individual approach to animals. However, in the pasture period, the maintenance of cows takes a lot of time and effort.
Each animal must be untied, brought into place, then driven back and re-tied.
In the cold season, cows walk on the grounds adjacent to the stalls.
If you have one or two cows, but there is no opportunity to give them to the herd, which is regularly grazed, it does not matter. You can organize individual grazing.
Choose a pad, flat and with good grass, in the middle, drive a peg.
One end of a long rope is tied to it (6-7 m minimum), and on the second you need to make a loop.
The loop is put on the neck of the cow, but it should not choke the animal. Burenka move as she will eat the grass in the area.
If there is no place for grazing, the cow will still need to be taken outside. Holding her on such a leash can bring her food and water. So she will eat and heal in the fresh air.
How to teach a cow to walk in a herd
Now tell you what to do if a cow refuses to graze along with other animals. By the way, there is nothing surprising. Cows have a rather weak herd instinct, therefore, having seen an unfamiliar company, a Burenka can run away from the herd home or to its usual place.
First of all, you can't beat an animal for going home. The cattle will continue to run away, but no longer in their own backyard, but where they look. May be completely lost.
In general, the introduction to the herd - stress. That is why it should be done gradually. It is desirable that the first time, at least a week, the owner went with the flock to the pasture.
Seeing a familiar person, the cow will not be afraid. First, the cows graze in the herd for 3-4 hours, gradually adding time. It is good, if cows are in advance familiar with the shepherd.
Then they follow him more willingly and obey.
If pasture is nearby, calves can go there with their mothers and return home, which allows them to get used to the herd without problems. Or they are taken separately with the young.
Sometimes the calf is grazed even with kids, it is better than constantly keeping him in the stall.
Of course, the baby needs to be watched so that he does not run away, but be kindly treated.
So, we have told all about the grazing of cattle. We hope you liked the article, be sure to put likes.
Feeding and maintenance of dairy cattle during the pasture period
What to do with the cows before bringing them to pasture? The organization of the driven pasture. Feeding of cows to which pasture maintenance is applied. This article will discuss this.
Transfer of livestock to grazing. Before releasing livestock to pastures, you must:
- Inspect pastures and clean them of garbage, deadwood, etc. Determine runs for livestock.
- Split the pastures into pens, plow the boundaries of the pens and establish the order of their grazing.
- To consolidate the pasture plots for individual herds, in accordance with veterinary and sanitary requirements, ease of access to watering holes and the need to divert the best pastures to the most valuable and productive livestock groups.
- Check the condition of the watering places, make a biological analysis of the water, equip the approaches to open water bodies, install watering troughs at the wells at the rate of at least 25 troughs per 100 head of livestock.
- To equip summer camps for livestock with feeders, tethers, sheds for milking cows and receiving milk, sheds for storing concentrates and glaciers for storing milk.
- To put in order summer homes for working livestock brigades.
- Carry out a veterinary and zootechnical inspection and processing of livestock, and, if necessary, make protective vaccinations of animals against anthrax and emphysematous carbuncle.
- Clear and trim the hoof, saw the sharp ends of the horns, restore lost ear numbers in animals.
- Weigh the animals.
- To form feeding herds.
The transition from stall to grazing feeding should be carried out gradually. In the early days, animals are released to pasture after feeding in a stall.
In the first 2-3 days, cows are grazed only 2-3 hours, in the next 2-3 days - 4-6 hours, and then within 3-5 days - 8-10 hours, after which the cattle is transferred to full grazing.
The best pastures close to the camps are assigned to highly productive cows and calves, while remote pastures are taken by barren and low-producing cows, but for them the daily run should not exceed 3-5 km.
Overtaking dairy cattle. In order to better use the pasture is divided into separate rectangular pens with an aspect ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 3.
The number of pens is set depending on the duration of their bleeding and the time of grass regrowth. In the steppe zone, pastures are usually divided into 10-12, in the forest-steppe zone - by 8-10, and in the forest zone - by 10-12 pens.
In this case, the bleeding of one pen lasts 4-6 days. During the season, the same pen is grazed 3-4 times, after an interval of 30-40 days, sufficient to resume a good grass stand.
Breeding pens carried out in order of priority.
Within the boundaries of each pen, the morning grazing begins with the sections etched on the eve. In order to avoid tympanism, grazing in areas with a predominance of leguminous vegetation should be alternated with grazing on grass pastures.
In each pen, after etching, trim the remaining grass and level the feces. Herding is carried out with a wide front, across the width of the entire pen. As soon as most of the livestock begins to go to bed during the shepherding, it must be given to drink and give it rest.
Herding begins early in the morning and continues until the onset of heat. After the decline of heat, cattle continue to graze until late in the evening. The duration of grazing during the day should be at least 12 hours. spring and autumn and 16 hours. summer.
At night, the darkest time, cattle must be given a three-hour rest.
In organizing the grazing of cows, the training of shepherds is extremely important. Both their proper use of pastures and an increase in the productivity of cows largely depend on their skills.
At present, our industry has mastered the production of electrical fences for grazing livestock. The introduction of these fences makes it possible to shepherd without herders, which will significantly reduce the need for labor and increase productivity.
The organization of feeding the cows. If cows do not receive the necessary amount of nutrients from pastures according to the norm, they should be given additional feeding.
Top dressing on pastures should be carried out primarily with freshly cut grass, tops, early silage, and only in the absence of a green top dressing must be given canned corn cobs of milky-wax ripeness and concentrated feed.
During the period of pasture burnout and at the end of the pasture season, when pasture productivity drops sharply, fertilizing should be increased, avoiding a decrease in milk yields.
Feed the cows individually. Top dressing is distributed at camps (tyrlah) while cows are resting before watering. Milk cows are given salt licorice. Crushed salt lay in the deck, placed on pastures.
The daily routine of pastures. During the pasture period, the daily routine for individual farms is compiled depending on the state of grass, weather, productivity of cows, the location of grazing land, etc.
Why distill cattle on summer pastures?
- Ruslan Mikhailovich, please tell us why we need to move our cattle to summer pastures?
- I would like to tell you in a few words about transhumance.
This is a form of livestock organization, in which the livestock is on pastureland for a certain season of the year, far from populated areas.
Sheep, horses and young cattle are most adapted to this content.
It is known that an important source of production of cheap fodder is natural forage lands and, above all, natural pastures.
In the feed balance, their products make up 40 percent, including 80 percent or more of them, they meet the need for green fodder. Juicy grass in the early phases of plant development is the most complete and cheap animal feed.
The dry matter of the young grass in its nutritional value is close to the concentrates, but it significantly surpasses them in the biological usefulness of proteins and the content of vitamins.
Hence it is clear that during the period of grazing the most intense increase in live weight and productivity of animals occurs. In addition, the pasture forage unit costs 2-3 times less than other forage.
Therefore, the available large areas of natural pastures in each settlement and region as a whole must be properly and effectively used, preserving and increasing their productivity from year to year.
It should be remembered that the value of wild vegetation lies in its exceptional drought tolerance.
Grasses create a powerful soil sodding, which provides it with a certain safety during intensive grazing.
At the same time, the practice of recent years shows that the natural lands in the Oka are underutilized and uneven.
Unsystematic exploitation led to the fact that the productivity of pastures and hayfields decreased almost everywhere, and the area of degraded land increased. As a result, the modern productivity of hayfields and pastures is far below potential.
In our conditions, natural pastures and hayfields are the foundation, the main base of the environment.
Therefore, not only the economic condition, but also the ecological well-being of the population depend on their condition.
One thing is clear that mobile (nomadic) pasture use should be rational and efficient.
- What is the effectiveness of such content?
- The use of distant-pasture livestock will significantly increase the number of all types of livestock.
The economic efficiency of transhumance livestock is that with minor costs for feeding and keeping livestock and taking care of it, the cost of livestock products is drastically reduced, significant areas of arable land in the main farm area are being released for the development of other branches of agricultural production. In other words, mobile livestock is an event that is justified in both environmental and economic terms. It should be remembered that in order to obtain a long-term economic effect, it is necessary to observe the basic elements of rational grazing (load, dates of beginning and end of grazing, observance of optimal coefficients of alienation of phytomass, guaranteed water supply, etc.).
Transhumance based on seasonally moving livestock for relatively short distances. Cattle are usually distilled in high mountain pastures in summer and in lowland valleys in winter.
For reference, I will say that there are 22,831 hectares of farmland in the Oka district, including arable land - 1,719 hectares, hayfields - 2,592 hectares, and pastures - 18,520 hectares. This shows that the largest part is pastures.
- How can you organize the removal of animals on summer pastures?
- For example, you do not need to go far.
In the recent past, in order to make full use of the natural pastures before the pasture of livestock for summer maintenance in each settlement, citizens' gatherings were held, where they determined what number of livestock there is in the village by age and age groups and livestock species. In the village for the summer left only the cows of the dairy herd, the young growth of the current year and, if necessary, koumiss mares. All the rest of the livestock was sent to distant pastures assigned to this village. Determined the number of herds and their location. Shepherds were chosen, they determined the payment. All this was recorded and strictly enforced by local authorities. Grazing on remote pastures was carried out until late autumn. I am deeply convinced that such an order of livestock maintenance should be organized in every rural locality and in our days. This work should be led by rural settlements with the involvement of agricultural specialists.
In my opinion, it is time to actively use and distant pastures in the territory of their district. This is a huge wealth, and they need to use for the successful development of animal husbandry.
Our generation is still fresh in the memory of the times when the transhumance was attached great importance.
By tradition, cattle were sent to distant pastures mainly after May 9, when stable, warm weather was established.
Before the pasture of the cattle, the one who intended to graze the cattle on the otgons left for the sites. Much attention was paid to ensuring the safety of livestock from possible predators.
- Ruslan Mikhailovich, what is the legal aspect of this type of animal husbandry?
- Legally it is enshrined in the Rules for the maintenance, grazing and running of farm animals approved in the territory of each settlement.
They describe in detail the rights and obligations of owners of agricultural animals, the procedure for their maintenance, grazing and running, stipulated the size of fines for causing harm, injuries to agricultural land, crops.
With regard to the imposition of fines, the authority in this area has the head of the Department of Agriculture, which is authorized to draw up protocols on administrative offenses. Heads of rural settlements have the same rights.
- Thank you for the interview!
Pasture use systems and livestock grazing methods
There are 2 pasture use systems: drive-over and distant.
The drive system is used when pastures are close to the barnyard.
At the same time, cattle for milking and overnight are brought to the barnyard. Here he organized his watering, feeding, sanitary and hygienic care.
The distant system is used if there are pastures on the farm that are 2 km or more away from the barnyard. With such a system, livestock remain on pasture for the entire pasture period.
At the same time, pastures are equipped with a shelter for overnight livestock, milking installations, outbuildings, etc. Otherwise, the distant system is called the summer camp maintenance system.
During the camp, the task is to provide the livestock with full feeding with green, juicy and concentrated feed.Therefore, feeding of cattle with other feeds introduced into the diet besides grazing feed should be provided.
Animals feed with green fodder with insufficiently high pasture productivity.
To do this, you can use both fresh grass and dried, in which the dry matter content is higher.
For highly productive animals, fertilizing with concentrates is necessary to increase the protein and energy value of the ration.
When grazing livestock, various methods are used - the pastures of animals (methods of using pastures). In this case, free (unsystematic) or system (rotational) grazing may be used.
With free pasture, livestock freely throughout the pasture period or most of it grazes on the same territory. Animals feel calm.
There is no need for a fence (except for the separation of the pasture area from other lands). This type of grazing is used at different levels of intensification of pasture farming.
The least intensive form of pasture with the use of this method of grazing can be considered pastures, which are characterized by low productivity of grass stands.
On such pastures, no activities are being carried out to care for grass stands, there is no division into sections and pens.
The use of free grazing is possible on highly productive, intensively fertilized pastures under certain conditions.
Such pastures should be located on sufficiently wetted habitats, have herbage resistant to grazing. The level of organization of work for the care of such pastures should be high.
Every three to four weeks, nitrogenous fertilizers are applied on the trackless, intensive pastures (1.5—2 kg of nitrogen per 1 ha on the day of re-growth of the grass stand).
Under favorable moisture conditions, such pastures when grazing animals are not inferior in productivity to pastures with paddocks. In dry years, their yield is 10-15 lower %.
This method of grazing is used in many farms in Western Europe. It provides livestock products at a fairly low cost.
Free grazing is combined with forage harvesting on a part of the area, the size of which depends on the need for harvested and pasture forage.
The area for forage harvesting is allocated annually in different parts of the pasture with the help of electrical fences or by other means.
The accumulation of pasture forage is regulated by increasing or decreasing the mowed area, the timing and doses of fertilizer application, primarily nitrogenous.
Systematic grazing involves dividing pastures into plots (pens, portions), which are vented in a certain order or according to a certain system. At the same time, pens are allocated in such a way that the grass in them is enough for the whole herd for 4-5 days.
After this time, the herd is distilled into another pen, separated by a fence. Within this paddock or over the entire area of pasture, cattle can be allocated portions - the area of a paddock on 1 day of pasture (day portions) or even on several hours of pasture (hourly portion).
Such grazing is called batch grazing.
The drive (especially a portion) way of pasture use is an important element in increasing the intensification of pasture farming. A variety of system grazing is keeping cattle on a leash.
Apply it when fattening young cattle, as well as when grazing sick animals.
It finds application in small farms with a limited area of meadow land or when using part of arable land for pasture by planting it for a certain number of years.
System grazing, as a rule, has advantages over the free one.
Specially conducted studies in many natural zones by staging a series of experiments with 4-8 pasture use plots showed that, compared with free grazing, with driven use, you can feed more livestock on the same plot and increase the productivity of animals. At the same time, small-grazing pasture, with pasture division into 8 pens, as compared to large-grained, with division of pasture territory into 4 pens, increased the productivity of animals by 35% and reduced the need for pasture area by 30%.
In addition, with systemic grazing of animals, it is easier to organize routine maintenance of pasture (fertilizing with fertilizers, cutting through uneaten grass residues, leveling animal feces, planting grasses, etc.).
However, systemic grazing increases the costs of pasture maintenance, enclosing pens, and covering up cattle passes; it requires the allocation of additional personnel.
Advantages of pasture content of cattle
Pasture maintenance of cattle is practiced in almost all latitudes of the globe. Just somewhere this process takes place year-round, and in most regions of our country - during the 3-4 warmest months. Even for such a short period, the conversion of cattle to pasture maintenance has many advantages over the stall:
- Cost reduction by 25-30%. Green grass is the cheapest feed. It costs 2-3 times less than any analogue for stall content, therefore the profitability of dairy or meat production will be higher.
- High biological value of green grasses. Grazing on such fodder base gives high milk yield - up to 20 kilograms or more - and an intensive increase in meat mass.
- Productivity. Udoi becomes not only higher by 25-30%, but the product itself becomes more valuable - there is a lot of carotene in it, the milk is more fat and tasty. No wonder the best is Alpine and Dutch milk, while the product obtained from cows receiving silage, has a low taste.
- Improving animals. When grazing on pasture eliminates the effects of unbalanced nutrition in the stall period.
- Positive effect on reproduction. Higher fertility rates, the offspring comes to life more viable, and in general there are fewer complications in calving.
Which pastures are better?
Cattle grazing is best done on intensive cultivated pastures. These are highly productive forage lands - they are pre-cleared from shrubs and sown with various herbs with good nutritional value.
The basis consists of: ryegrass of four different varieties with different ripening periods and two types of clover or highly nutritive legumes. One field per season is vented up to 10 times.
Basic rules for livestock pasture
- Keep a herd of more than 200 goals impractical. With a large number of livestock on the pasture, part of the grass will simply be trampled down
- The area of green meadows per unit of livestock is 0.5 hectares for adult animals and 0.2 hectares for young animals.
- Fully transfer cows to herbage stands when the plants are no lower than 10-12 cm.
- The transition to a green food base should be gradual, in the first 10 days the animals need to be fed.
- You can start the pasture season a fortnight earlier if you graze livestock on winter rye or crucifers.
- To avoid overriding forbs, uneaten areas need to be mowed.
- The height of the grass should not be more than 15 cm, if it is 20-25 cm, then the animals on average will eat 35-40% less.
- Partial mowing and shearing grass tufts improves the nutritional base.
- It is very important to provide animals access to salt - 150 g per day per cow.
- Drinking water in abundance - up to 120 liters per animal.
Restoration of food supply
With intensive grazing, pastures are depleted. In order to restore and increase their productivity, the following methods are used:
- sowing seeds with preliminary soil treatment,
- sowing seeds without tillage to the depth of the planter,
- surface sowing of seeds before the rainy period,
- fertilizer with mineral complexes and nitrogen compounds,
- flooding with melt waters in the spring.
Each of these methods will increase the efficiency of pasture forage base by 35-40%. But the most effective has a comprehensive improvement, that is, a combination of several methods. So you can increase the productivity of pasture by 2-3 times.
Rules for grazing livestock and poultry in settlements
In addition to large farmers, there are individual farms. And they also transfer their animals for feeding from pastures in the summer. The rules of grazing are determined by local authorities, that is, the administration of a particular locality. They determine the organization of grazing, determine the areas for pastures and cattle walking.
Accordingly, the rules vary depending on the specific locality, but practically in each body, you can find similar provisions, for example:
- Animals must graze on fenced pastures, on a leash or under the supervision of a livestock owner or a bird.
- Horses can be fed only in a state of walking.
- The owner is obliged to accompany the birds to a natural or artificial reservoir.
- Banned homeless grazing of livestock and poultry along the roads.
- Before the beginning of the grazing season, the pet owner must contact the administration for the allocation of the site and its lease for the summer period.
- The owner is responsible for the pollution of livestock streets and sidewalks.
- Cattle must be labeled with the assignment of an individual number.
- In case of cattle mortality, it is imperative to inform the administration and not to dispose of animal corpses on our own.
- Pigs should be kept only in pens, without grazing and without access to other animals.
A complete list of rules for keeping livestock grazing must be obtained from local authorities, since in case of their violation, the owner will face an administrative penalty of a fine.
See also in other dictionaries:
pasture - a, cf. The place where livestock grazes. Mountain pastures. Winter n. ◁ Pasture, ay, oh. P. feed. P th animal husbandry. P. period. The fifth content of livestock. Natural pastures. Cultivated grasslands (with seeded grass) ... Encyclopedic dictionary
CONTENTS OF AGRICULTURAL ANIMALS - maintenance of farm animals, a set of measures for the care of animals, including accommodation, the creation of an optimal microclimate and other zoohygienic conditions, and observance of the daily routine. A few cattle are used ... ... Veterinary Encyclopedic Dictionary
PASTURE CONTENT - summer feeding with. x alive on pasture, differs from summer stabling in that when the last cattle are fed in stalls, mowed green grass. P. with. has the following advantages: 1) free and quiet movement is alive. on ... ... Agricultural dictionary reference
Yaki General information - see also 9. Yaki B.S. Sarbagishev, V, K Rabocheye, A, I. Terebaev The diverse and complex natural and climatic conditions of the Soviet Union with the presence of a significant number of high-mountainous territories create prerequisites for further development ... ... Genetic resources of farm animals in Russia and neighboring countries
PASTURE - a place for grazing livestock, in the narrow sense a place for walking livestock. Pasturing livestock feeding livestock preim. on pasture, with some only feed in the stalls. See Pasture, Pasture Content and Dosage ... Agricultural Reference Dictionary
Yegoriy Veshny - Request "St. George's Day" is redirected here. About the film, see the article Yuriev Day (film). This article is about the day of the national calendar, celebrated in May. On the day of the national calendar, celebrated in December, see Yegori winter. Egoriy Veshniy ... Wikipedia
Fruit bearing - the fruit-growing economy is characterized by the introduction of plants belonging to different botanical species into the crop rotation and their strict alternation with each other. The sequence in the distribution of cultivated plants (cereal loaves, ... ... Encyclopedic dictionary of FA Brockhaus and IA Efron
Toyi parazushi - This term has other meanings, see Toisi. Village Toisi Parasushi ... Wikipedia
Yuriev day - This term has other meanings, see St. George's Day (film). St. George with the life. Rostov Icon of the 16th Century St. George Day (Yegoryev Day) Slavic folk festival dedicated to the church days of St. George the Victorious. ... ... Wikipedia
PASTURE - PASTE, grazing, grazing (S. x.). adj to pasture associated with feeding livestock on pastures, grazing. Grazing livestock. Maintenance of livestock in the pasture period. Explanatory Dictionary Ushakov. D.N. Ushakov. 1935 1940 ... Ushakov Explanatory Dictionary
Grazing on pasture
Tell me, please, how best to deal with the arrogance of a neighbor, where it is better to complain and what exactly to complain about.
We live in the village, Moscow region. A neighbor appeared a couple of years ago who decided to breed small cattle. The stable is located on the fenced off part of its plot, and it walks on animals on its unfenced part.
At the same time, very often the animals are unattended and disperse in a public field, which is adjacent to its section through a country road.
They always used the road to go to the forest, and now the wife with the child cannot walk herself, as she is afraid - last year she had to run away with a child in her arms, from a goat, who even butted her. At that moment, unfortunately, I was not there, the local police officer did not write a statement to the police officer at that time, and they did not issue a bruise from the doctors.
Then the winter began, everything somehow subsided, but yesterday my wife wanted to go into the forest again, and, as she says, the flock went to her with the child, she returned home to follow me. I told the child that we were going to blow firecrackers on the field, to which he was very happy :)))
The rams walked along the field, I told their hostess everything I thought about it, to which she replied that "this is a village, and you can call a district police officer, he still will not do anything - they have already passed." To which I said that I came with a child to blow firecrackers on a public field, and I will do it at least every day, until she shepherds her cattle on her territory and does not interfere with going to the forest. She said that her animals are not afraid of firecrackers.
Heh. firecrackers are different :)) from mine they so rushed to their home that after a minute the field was empty.
Actually, I could continue to do so, but immediately after this incident, an ambulance came to her, I think that there would be a statement from her, and some help from the doctors that pressure had jumped or worse.
This is actually the first question - what position to take if the district police officer comes and says that something happened because of the squib.
She is a very harmful woman; last year she wrote to the mother-in-law that she was poisoning her animals with a dog. The local policeman himself complained that she had gotten him with complaints about all her neighbors - that everyone around her was poisoning her animals with dogs.
And the second question - I consulted a lawyer, he advised me three times to apply for her application to the practitioner that the cattle were walking in the wrong place, and to apply to the Rospotrebnadzor and the prosecutor's office. And a collective complaint from the neighbors still make up. But what I can’t understand is what to complain to the prosecutor’s office about the inaction of the district police officer or the fact that she denies us access to the forest?
I will definitely go to the precinct office after the weekend, I will try to agree with him so that I can quickly drive up if there is a complaint from us, but maybe the League will advise something else?
At the disposal of the municipal district, we have an article: "Grazing of livestock is allowed only in specially designated places.Grazing of animals on non-fenced pastures is carried out on a leash or under the supervision of animal owners or persons who have entered into agreements with the owners or persons authorized by them for the provision of services for the grazing of animals (hereinafter - the shepherd).
Animal owners and shepherds are obliged to continuously monitor animals in the process of grazing on pastures, preventing them from moving to areas not intended for these purposes. It is forbidden to leave animals unattended, to graze on the streets and other places not intended for this purpose, to allow flower beds and crops to be harvested. It is not allowed to move animals without being accompanied by the owner or the shepherd. "
But what responsibility for this is provided, I could not find. As far as I know, there is also an administrative commission or a commission on administrative violations, with Admtekhnadzor, but in our district, it does not work in fact, due to the re-registration of the entire region.
In order to properly organize grazing, it is necessary to know the pasture capacity, i.e., to determine how much livestock can be fed per hectare during the pasture period
A good organization of watering is one of the main conditions for obtaining high productivity of animals in the summer. In the spring and autumn, each cow drinks 45–50 liters of water, in the summer - 60–70 liters, and on hot days the need for water rises to 100 liters. Young cattle require 30-50 liters of water per head per day.
The best sources of watering are storage tanks, from which water enters the watering troughs. Troughs arrange flooring or other hard coating to ensure a good approach to them. Troughs should have drain holes for periodic cleaning. Approximate calculation of the length of the troughs with a bilateral approach - 20-30 centimeters per head.
A satisfactory watering are flowing rivers with a good approach to them. At the device of a watering place from ponds, lakes, digging it is necessary to install the water-lifting equipment with water supply in accumulative capacities and a trough. In the absence of water sources on pasture, it is necessary to organize its transportation on the basis of the daily needs of animals.
Do not allow the watering of livestock with a pen in the swamps, lakes, ponds, digging, as this can lead to a disease of the digestive tract, limbs, udder, infection of animals with diseases.
In order to avoid unnecessary hauls of livestock, a watering place for all groups of animals should be provided not only in the camps, but also in pasture areas.
Timing, height and number of blows
A large role is played by the height of the plant bleeding. With low grazing (2–3 cm), pasture productivity decreases in subsequent years, whereas with high (10–15 cm), a significant part of the grass stand is underutilized, which is also unacceptable. Considering the biology of growth and the development of grasses, the influence of different climatic conditions, it is recommended to graze grass no lower than 4-5 cm on pastures in the forest zone. With such a height, grass stands are fully used (up to 90 percent on good pastures).
Pasture productivity and the normal growth of grasses are affected by the correct determination of the amount of grazing during the pasture season. Depending on the soil and climatic conditions, the presence of precipitation (wet and dry years), etc., the number of etchings may vary.
With frequent bleeding, the plants lose first of all the leaves, as a result, the rate of accumulation of reserve substances in underground organs decreases sharply, the plants go into wintering without the necessary supply of batteries. This adversely affects the overwintering of plants and the development of grass stand in the spring of next year. Herbage begins to thin out, and in the coming years, pastures significantly depreciate. However, with rare bleeding, the vegetation overgrows, grows coarse, is poorly eaten by livestock, and, therefore, herbage is not fully used.
When determining the timing and number of blows it is necessary to monitor the most complete use of the grass stand. Premature grazing of animals on pastures should not be allowed, as they bite young grass very low, as a result, overgrowth occurs and plants grow back slowly. It is not recommended to graze cattle on perennial grass stands (20–25 cm or more in height), because at the same time many herbs begin to bloom, coarseness and animals are eaten poorly, and overgrown plants remain untouched and the grass stands are unfavorable.
On most pastures, the first grazing should last no more than 30–35 days, the second can be started 20–25 days after the first, and the next - after 30–40 days. The harvest of the second aftermath is considerably less than the first, and the third at best gives 50-60 percent. the first crop of grazing. On highly productive legume-cereal pastures of intensive type, the intervals are shorter, and it is possible to spend 5-7 cycles of grazing and get high yields during the entire pasture season.
Breeding with small intervals for regrowth, especially continuous grazing, depletes the plants, causing a decrease in pasture yields and depletion of grass with forage-valuable grasses. If pasture plots can not be used in a timely manner, then the grass is cut into hay. After mowing or grazing, the plants regain their ground mass.
In order to properly organize grazing, it is necessary to know the capacity of pastures, that is, to determine how much cattle can be fed per hectare during the pasture period. This issue is important, since with overloading of grazing, it is often the most pasture-bearing plants that fall out of the grass stand, and grazing lands lose their economic value.
It should be borne in mind that the growth of green mass on pastures is uneven. So, in May you can get only 12-15 percent of the annual crop of herbs, in June-July - from 30 to 40, in August - up to 20, in September - up to 12 percent.
It is necessary to find out how much green mass (in decades) can be obtained from natural and sown cultivated pastures and calculate the missing quantity in comparison with the needs of animals. There are many varieties of grass growing on natural pastures, but not all of them serve as livestock feed. It happens that the consumption of grass in the meadow is only 50-60 percent. This circumstance is important to consider when planning a green pipeline.
The earlier the grazing season begins, the better it is for livestock. Therefore, in many farms, winter rye crops are used as pastures, and if you have winter rapeseed and winter rape crops, you can feed the livestock with a green mass a week earlier than green rye. Consequently, in the early spring period green fodder is given consistently: winter rape, then winter rape and later - winter rye. These forage animals receive much earlier than the green mass from meadows and pastures.
As the early forage crops are bled, the vacated areas immediately plow up and sow legume-grass mixtures, which later turn into a green conveyor. This happens usually in July. To lengthen the effect of the green conveyor, after harvesting these mixtures, in late July - early August, lupine-oat mixtures are sown to obtain a third crop of green mass.
The required pasture area for 1 head for various animals is: adult cattle - 0.4—0.5 hectares, young cattle - 0.2 hectares, on highly productive legume-grass pastures of intensive type, the required area is 0 for cows 3—0.35 ha. These standards are established by scientific institutions or practices of the economy. However, in each case, you can fairly accurately determine the normal capacity of pastures. It is established taking into account the pasture yield, the daily need of one animal for pasture green fodder and the length of the pasture period in days.
Grazing land is determined on the basis of data on the productivity of individual pastures available on the farm. If these data are not available, then the yield of one or another plot can be established from the hay harvest from the hay field close to the given pasture area due to natural conditions, and the mass of green grass is determined from the mass of hay using conversion factors.
Pasture harvest can be established by highlighting sample plots of 1 m2, mowing grass at them at a height of 4-5 cm and weighing it.
Consider a method for determining the capacity of pastures in the pasture period based on available materials on pasture productivity.
The daily need for green fodder for various animal species is established according to the zootechnical standards adopted by the farm. However, tentatively, you can adhere to the following norms of green fodder (on average per head): depending on the milk yield, 40–75 kg for cows, 30–40 kg for young cattle over 1 year old, 15–25 kg for young animals up to 1 year old.
Calculation of the daily need for green mass
Suppose that the productivity of a lactating cow is 15 kg of milk and 15 k is required per cow.
For each kilogram of milk the farm produces 0.2 kg of concentrates. Then due to concentrates the cow will receive 3 fodder units and at the expense of green mass 12 k. Units.
When the content in 1 kg of green mass of 0.19 to. Units. required feed (12: 0,19) = 63 kg.
The length of the pasture period is 130-140 days.
Thus, knowing the pasture harvest, the animal's daily need for green fodder and the length of the pasture period, it is possible to determine the pasture capacity.
Suppose that the pasture harvest is 120 centners of green mass per hectare, the duration of the pasture period is 140 days. One cow requires 63 kg of green feed per day. Therefore, for the entire pasture period, 63ґ140 = 8820 kg, or 88.2 c.
Pasture yield divided by the amount of green fodder needed by one cow for the entire pasture period will amount to the load norm per 1 hectare of pasture.
In the above example, the load will be 120: 88.2 = 1.4 cows per 1 ha. Thus, one cow requires 1: 1.4 = 0.71 ha during the pasture season. When calculating pasture areas, it is advisable to increase this area by 15–20 percent. in case of reduced grass yield due to adverse weather (insurance fund).
The above factors — timing and height of grazing, number of grazing, and normal pasture capacity — are important for the rational use of pastures. Other factors play a big role in their proper use. For example, the organization of pasture pasture and pasture rotation, the introduction of a green conveyor and summer camp maintenance of livestock, the current care of pastures and the order of their use by various species of animals.
Prepared by RUE "SPC NAS of Belarus on animal husbandry"
The territory for grazing land is chosen in such a way that it is near the farm. First of all, dry pasture is allocated for pasture; on marshy and forest soils, as a rule, herbs grow with a low content of useful elements, which often leads to various diseases, especially in young.
The soil should be loamy, fertile or moderately fertile, with a low level of acidity.acidic soils always lime. This soil is most suitable for growing most types of green fodder.
In spring, pasture soil needs to be harrowed, this procedure covers moisture and destroys weeds. Then the primer is rolled by a water-filled roller to create a dense bed for the seed.
Fodder plants for animals that are grown in pastures, are very diverse. Next, we consider the most significant pasture forage crops.
Cereals are the most common forage plants on cultivated lands. There is a very large number of cereals that are grown on cultivated pastures. But we consider the most common types.
One of them is feather grass. This plant is common in steppe and forest-steppe areas and has more than 300 species worldwide and about 80 in our country. It is well consumed by all kinds of livestock.
The most common types are: Lessing, feather hair, dneprovsky and Sarepta feather grass, known to most as tyrsik. But the most prevalent of these species is the Lessing feather grass. This species is not only dominant, but also contains a larger amount of nutrients than the rest of its relatives.
This herb is best eaten by animals. until the end of its bloomwhich begins at the end of June, beginning of July.
The hairy dog is the second most common species, but its difference from others is that it blooms in late summer, thereby maintaining its nutritional value longer and attractive to livestock.
Tipchak or Welsh fescue (also under this name imply various types of fescue) - common pasture herbage, contains a relatively large amount of protein, no more than 20 cm in height.
The fescue is eaten by all kinds of livestock, but most of all he liked the sheep and the horses. This herb is resistant to drought, grows well after eating animals. It often winters with green leaves, which increases its value in winter and early spring.
Meat - The green leaves of this grass do not grow rapidly during May and June, its height does not exceed 40 cm. Like most other forage green plants, it is best consumed until mid-summer, because then it gets coarse and loses its nutritional value.
Kostrets - has a high yield and can grow on any soil, well used by all types of herbivores. These qualities make this grass one of the best options for sowing pastures. Also, with periodic rain or watering, this plant remains juicy until the fall. Easily tolerates a moderate pasture load.
Bluegrass bulbous - a common culture about 20 cm tall, a quarter consists of protein, which grows well on pasture-devastated by domestic animals. The bluegrass begins to germinate immediately after the snow melts, and it dries already in the middle of spring.
Legumes valued for high protein contentbut. Because of its chemical composition, these plants are the most valuable feed on pastures. In addition, legumes largely fertilize the land with nitrogen, which, in turn, has a positive effect on crop yields. From legumes on pastures there are various varieties of alfalfa, mountain clover, sainfoin, Karagana, kopechnik and many others.
Mountain clover It is the most popular species among other fodder clovers, as it tolerates drought well and can be planted in the steppe area, it grows poorly on downed pastures.
One of the most valuable leguminous forage crops is sainfoin. He gained great importance due to the huge content of nutrients. This plant is also frost-resistant, calmly tolerates dry weather and remains juicy throughout the summer. However, it is poorly resistant to grazing and is poorly restored after it.
Karagan - It is a small shrub about half a meter high. Only young shoots, which are not more than a year old, are of great feed value, since older bushes grow coarse and spines appear on them. Also a huge disadvantage of the Karagana is that it strongly litters the land, if you do not control its growth.
Sedge stopovidnaya - It is the most common forage representative of its family.The height does not exceed 20 cm, contains a large amount of protein and fiber, which contributes to the collection of greater muscle mass. The factor that such a plant increases muscle growth makes it indispensable on pastures, where they will graze "meat" animals.
Also, sedge is resistant to grazing and heat, continues to grow and remain juicy throughout the summer. For the winter, only the tips of the leaves dry up, and they themselves remain green, this quality makes it an indispensable plant on a winter pasture.
For grass can be attributed all herbaceous plants except cereals and beans. The value of forbs as food supply is secondary. But some representatives of the herbs in their nutritional value are not worse than legumes or cereals. In this group of grass stands there are a large number of asterites, umbellate and cruciferous, rosaceous, lipflower and other species.
The most dangerous for livestock are hemlock, cycuta, belladonna, cockle, wild rosemary, aconite, wolf's bast. To poisonous plants, which are most often found on pastures, include celandine, field poppy, steppe mordovnik, horsetail, legumes, zhivokost, hellebore, lilies of the valley, sundew, black hellebore, buttercups, Tauride wormwood and many others.
Mostly poisonous plants are common on wetlands and high humidity areas, as well as on pastures with rare grazing, and poor maintenance.
Garbage collection and weed control
Before the creation of pastures, on which in the future cows, sheep, horses and other cattle will graze, from the territory it is necessary remove all trash (old brushwood, stones, bones, bottles, etc.), remove all weeds and poisonous plants.
It is necessary to cut down and uproot all unnecessary shrubs, because they will prune the ground and interfere with the growth of seeded forage grasses and contribute to poisonous. Also in the bushes often live mites and other parasites, complicating the life of cattle.
Together with the bushes, it is necessary to uproot the old sticking stumps, fill up the pits to avoid getting wounds and injuries. It is very important to remove poisonous herbs before the start of the season, for this they most often dig up the ground or use herbicides.
If there are wetlands at the site, they should be drained and sown with herbs, water pits should be filled up, if this is not possible, they should be blocked so that they are not used as a watering place.
Fertilize the soil at the site, as a rule, with mineral fertilizers. Last year's cow dung is evenly spread throughout the territory, because Excessive levels of nitrogen, ammonia and other elements in the litter interfere with the growth of feed..
Seeding grains and legumes
The main causes of seeding are the enrichment of the existing forage base with additional more nutritious herbs and an increase in density, which, in aggregate, contributes to a more productive use of the territory.
Fodder seeding is less costly than full sowing of the meadows, because it does not need to treat the soil. Early spring is considered to be the best time for seeding. Seeding can be carried out in the summer, but only under the condition of heavy rains.
Rules for the care of fodder herbs
Caring for fodder grasses is in their proper fertilization and periodic mowing. For leguminous crops, fertilizing with phosphate-potassium fertilizers is necessary at the rate of 60 kg per 1 ha, which is carried out in the autumn.
Fertilize cereals with mineral or nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 35 kg per 1 ha. Fertilizing grass mixture, you need to consider the ratio of herbs. If you have more than half - it is legumes, then nitrogen fertilizers should be less, because a large amount of nitrogen negatively affects the root bacteria of legumes.
Rational use of pastures
In order to rationally use the territory, first of all, it is necessary to start grazing on time and finish it. In a wooded area, it is recommended to drive livestock to grazing, when the height of grasses reaches about 15 cm, and in the steppe and forest-steppe zones, such a level is about 10 cm.
Grazing should be carried out so that he ate young grass. Bleeding begins to carry out when the cereals go into the tube, and forbs and legumes side shoots are formed. End the bleeding should be when the cereals begins mid earing, well, the beans begin to bloom.
It is also necessary to stop grazing, if animals have already eaten about 80% of all grasses, otherwise the pasture yields will deteriorate greatly in the future. Finish offset a few weeks before the onset of frost.
If the season turned out to be fruitful and there is more grass than animals consume, it should be mowed and used to dry hay, make silage or grass meal.
And in conclusion, I would like to note that with the proper sowing of the land by grassy plants and the right grazing, its productivity can grow several times.