Hello dear readers.
I especially want to greet my regular readers, that is, my dear subscribers.
After I started my blog about greenhouses, many of my friends and acquaintances began to ask me about all the nuances in the greenhouse business. The same questions are asked to me on the Internet. And judging by their questions, I concluded that the majority has sometimes a very vague idea about the technology of growing a particular crop in greenhouse conditions.
And so today I decided to tell you about some of the subtleties and what to pay attention to first of all when growing cucumbers in a greenhouse. And so, what I advise:
- I advise you to pinch before 11 in the morning, so that by the evening the wounds you have had can heal a little.
- Water only in the morning if you do not have a drip or drip irrigation.
- Arrange the beds with a hollow - if you have a low water table in the greenhouse and a slide - if your level is gr. water - high.
- Even if you have parthenokarpichesky grade, then still walk through the rows and knock the trellis to help your fruit to start.
- Even if you really want to leave the first established inflorescences, however, the first 6-8 bosoms of the bush - dazzle.
- After each watering (if you do not have drip and non-point watering), be sure to walk around the beds with forks, that is, pierce the ground several times near the root system of each bush.
- Collect the fruits before lunch.
- Remember that cucumbers need more urea before fruiting, and with the beginning of fruiting phosphorus-potassium supplements.
- Cucumbers, unlike tomatoes in a greenhouse, do not tolerate drafts at all.
- Do not allow condensation to form on the inner surface of the greenhouse, opening the air vents in time for ventilation.
- If the collected cucumbers remain with you on the second day, then put open containers with water next to the boxes. These containers will help keep your cucumbers fresh and strong.
- Do not water your bushes with cold water, for this is a direct path to diseases.
- Do not leave more than 23 leaves on the bush, removing the lower leaves in time in the morning.
- Do not lower the temperature in the greenhouse below 16 degrees during intensive development of the root system, and not lower than 18 degrees during fruiting.
- Combine root and non-root dressings in turn.
- In order to avoid leg disease, remember that the place of entry into the ground of the trunk of the bush should be slightly higher than the horizontal of the soil (see photo).
Choosing the right grade
Even having put a good greenhouse on its site, some vegetable growers cannot achieve good yields of cucumbers that meet all the requirements. The thing is that Not all varieties of cucumbers are suitable for growing in a greenhouse.
But before choosing certain cucumber varieties for the greenhouse, you need to decide what is more important to you: getting early production, maximum yield from one meter of planting or feasting on fresh vegetables until the frost.
In each of these cases, certain requirements are imposed on the seed material:
- the earliest varieties are Zozulya, Masha F1, Hector. These varieties are ultra-fast. Their first fruits begin to form already on the fortieth day after germination,
- the most fruitful recognized varieties Tumi, Courage, Cupid. With proper care, these varieties yield up to 30 -40 kg per planting square,
- in order to there are cucumbers to the frostshould be planted in a greenhouse Marinda, Martha, Elegant, Bully,
- grade Athena F1 gives large yields even in low light conditions.
The peculiarity of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse is their arrangement in the tied-up state or the arrangement across the rows.We should choose varieties with weak branching, since they do not spend a lot of effort on the formation of leaf mass and are distinguished by the rapid formation of fruits. Besides, Strongly branching varieties in a closed greenhouse will create shadingthat will adversely affect yield.
The second criterion for selecting a variety is self-pollination. In an enclosed space, pollination with the help of insects will not occur, and you will not wait for the harvest from bee-pollinated cucumbers. Of course, you can theoretically do manual pollination. But for gardeners it is not possible, since this process is quite time consuming and time consuming.
Breeders brought a lot of self-pollinated cucumber varieties. All these varieties are called parthenokarpiki, and they are intended for cultivation in greenhouses. Ovaries on them are formed without pollination, that is, for the formation of fruits, cross-transfer of pollen is not required.
It is impossible to choose one of the best varieties of cucumbers for the greenhouse. The variety of varieties is currently quite large, and each vegetable grower can easily choose the most suitable for himself, focusing on the taste of the vegetable and its external characteristics. Hercules, Farmer, Annushka - all these species are hybrids, are distinguished by resistance to many diseases, high yields, shade tolerance.
Choosing a greenhouse
Greenhouses differ from greenhouses, first of all, by their height, so their design should be thought out in such a way to make plants comfortable to care for.
By design, greenhouses for cucumbers can be square or rectangular, in height - low and medium height.
The upper part of the greenhouse can be odnoskatnoy, gable, broken. The most convenient is the design in which there is the ability to open the roof.
The base for greenhouses is made of metal or wood. Popular greenhouses on the basis of metal wire, placed at a shallow depth in the ground.
The coating used is a polyethylene film, non-woven covering material.
The main condition for choosing a greenhouse cover is the light-throughput. Cucumber for ripening need a sufficient amount of light.
At the same time, the material must be dense enough to protect the heat-loving plants from wind and drafts. Very important for this vegetable and protection from the morning, cold dew.
How to make beds?
The secret of the early harvest of cucumbers in a greenhouse is the special preparation of the beds. It is worth starting their cultivation as soon as the snow comes down from the site.
For better lighting plants greenhouse arrange, positioning in the west-east direction. When setting warm weather on the day of the film is removed from the south side, and cucumbers will receive the maximum sun.
The most effective way to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse - a device for their landing "Warm beds". This will allow the vegetables to be planted in the soil at an earlier date, which means getting an early harvest.
From the formed ridges of the desired length, remove the top layer of earth on two bayonet shovels. The bottom layer of 20-30 cm in size is filled with straw, hay or small branches. This filling will begin to actively overheat in a month, which will give the plants warmth. To enhance the rate of decay and increase the heating temperature, manure is laid on this layer with a layer thickness of 15-20 cm.. On top of the warming layer sprinkled with lime-fluff, to reduce acidity.
On the compacted warm cushion fit the previously excavated soil. On the bed they pour all the soil, making a high bed. In the process of growing cucumbers, the earth will settle by 20-30%, because the substrate will condense and decrease in height.
Thus prepared warm bed for vegetables will serve as a heater and a nourishing layer for them. The crop of cucumbers on a warm bed many times exceeds usual cultivation.
For additional food wood ash at the rate of 50 gr. per one square meter, superphosphate 150 gr., potassium sulphate - 50 gr.
What leaves are superfluous?
The leaves are designated as superfluous if they shade and thicken the lower floors, from which the foliage turns yellow and dies. And this will immediately affect the branching and the size of the crop. Therefore, the thinning of the top of the crown (near the trellis wire) is a very important element in the care of cucumbers. The number of leaves to be removed depends on the situation: you need to ensure that the plant is lit from head to toe. Sprouted shoots are also removed.
Extra leaves and shoots are cut with a sharp knife, always in the morning and certainly in dry weather, leaving no stumps, and wounds are covered with ash, chalk or pound coal.
How to feed?
Cucumber - a plant with an excellent appetite, because such a rapid growth and abundant harvest takes a lot of energy. At the same time it is impossible to feed him in one sitting - you need to feed him regularly (about 1 time in 7-14 days). During intensive yield of the crop, the ratio of nitrogen and potassium in the dressings should be approximately 1: 1.5–2 in the greenhouse and 1: 1.2–1.5 in the open field, and at the moments of decline in fruiting it is adjusted to 1: 1. Good effect gives additional introduction of humates along with irrigation.
What is important to know about watering?
Cucumber loves water, and without regular and abundant irrigation nothing good will come of it. In a greenhouse, fruit-bearing plants are watered every 2–3 days, spending approximately 10–12 l per 1 m2. But swamp cucumbers, too, is contraindicated: the roots react poorly to the lack of air in the wet soil. The cucumber has very sensitive “feet” to cold, therefore only water at room temperature is used for irrigation. To achieve this, sometimes you have to heat it in a bucket. Watering is better in the morning - then the plants will spend the whole day in a comfortable atmosphere for them, similar to the tropics. A few hours after watering, the soil needs to be loosened to a depth of 4–7 cm. You can put old sawdust on the bed, rotted compost or even mowed grass.
Is it necessary to tie cucumbers?
You should not try to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse without a garter (in the open field it is permissible). The cucumber zone of the greenhouse must be equipped in advance: pull a thick steel wire at a height of up to 2.2 m. Plants are attached to it with the help of elastic, elastic twine (ribbons cut from old nylon pantyhose are convenient). The rope should be free - it is regularly wrapped around the stem (not vice versa) strictly according to the principle: one internode - one coil.
How to help cucumbers, if summer is cold?
This season, cucumbers have suffered for a long time because of the cold and excessive humidity, so it is important, if possible, to protect them from sudden changes in temperature and stagnant water. To prolong the growth and fruiting of cucumber, in the end of July - beginning of August, it is necessary to conduct an inspection of the plantings. Remove very weak and diseased plants, cut off the lower yellow leaves, defuse the upper tier of plants in the greenhouse to allow light and air to penetrate - this will also help prevent the spread of disease.
If you have planted bee-pollinated varieties and hybrids and at the same time there are no pollinating insects, you will have to pollinate the flowers manually: transfer the pollen from the male flower to the female.
Why do you need to pick cucumbers often?
Indeed, in a greenhouse, cucumbers are harvested daily, at least every other day. Overgrowth will slow down the maturation of the new crop. Leaving the seeds for seeds is also basically pointless - the properties of modern hybrids in the next generation will be lost, but the formation of one seed plant takes 5-7 kg of green men from us.
What kind of disease on the leaves?
Often, cucumbers suffer from downy mildew. At its initial stage, angular oily yellowish-green spots appear on the upper side of the leaf. Later they are covered with a grayish-purple coating on the underside.Gradually the leaf dries out, only the stalks remain on the plant. Ripe fruits turn pale and lose their taste. The plant gradually dies off. At the initial stage, the disease can be stopped by treatment with one of the following drugs: Bronex, Kurzat-R, Ordan (in the greenhouse you will have to take a break in the harvest for 3 days, in the open ground for 5 days).
If the spots on the leaves are bright, with a yellow border, which eventually turn into holes, and the fruits become covered with sores, from which ooze and thick liquid thickens, this is an olive spot. The drugs in this case are the same.
To reduce the damage from diseases to a minimum, it is necessary to grow hybrids resistant to several diseases, not to neglect the addition of humic substances and stimulants, in the fall to destroy plant debris and dig the soil.
As the famous proverb says, you need to prepare a sledge in summer. But the greenhouse for planting cucumbers - in the fall. After the last harvest in the autumn days, the gardener should carry out a number of activities:
- remove all plant debris from the greenhouse, dig up the soil, in order to disinfect and destroy pests, the entire greenhouse is treated with a solution of bleach (350 g of lime in a bucket of water, to insist 3 hours), it is important to process all the elements of the greenhouse made (wood, metal, glass, foam). In the end, the precipitate of the solution must be carefully processed all the cracks.
Greenhouse preparation is not limited to processing, it also includes land preparation. In the case when cucumbers were grown in the same greenhouse two years in a row, the land is either completely replaced or treated with bleach (dry added to the soil at the rate of 150 grams per square meter of land).
It is better to replace the soil with the following mixture: mix peat, humus, sod land, sawdust in equal parts.In the spring, 5-10 days before planting the seedlings, the land is fertilized with semi-mature manure or humus per 13 kg per 1 square meter. Greenhouse equip "pegs", "ropes" or trellis, which will wind the plant.
In order to get the best harvest, plant cucumber in a greenhouse with seedlings, which in no case can not be overdone. The norm for the growth of seedlings is a period of 23-25 days.
It is transplanted into the soil of the “covered garden” when the plant has 3-4 full-fledged leaves. The rows in the greenhouse are made from 80 to 100 cm wide, from 20 to 25 cm high, the distance between them must be at least 1 meter. In the beds, holes are made at a distance of about 30 cm, which must be filled first with a weak solution of potassium permanganate in a warm form, and then with warm water.
In the wells, the seedlings are carefully transferred along with the soil from the cup in which it grew. The plant is planted on the depth of the cup. Then pour water under the root, the temperature of which is about + 23С.
Greenhouse cucumber - the culture is quite demanding, therefore it is necessary to strictly observe all microclimatic conditions necessary for it. What are these conditions and their features.Temperature is one of the most important components of the microclimate.
It is necessary to ensure that it is stable, to avoid sudden drops - this applies to both air temperature and ground temperature.During seed growth, the temperature barrier is between + 26 ° C and + 28 ° C.
During the period of plant growth, the temperature can vary from + 18C to + 30C. The air humidity. One important rule to remember: the higher the temperature in the greenhouse - the higher should be the humidity. On hot days it can be up to 85%.
If the natural humidity seems to be insufficient, then it is increased in a simple way: on a hot day, plentifully pour all the tracks in the greenhouse and close it for an hour. Ventilation.One should always remember that a cucumber doesn’t like drafts very much, therefore, when airing a greenhouse, one side should be opened for oxygen supply. Lighting also plays an important role. If it is not possible to install an additional light source when the cultivation of this crop occurs in the autumn-winter period, then you should take care to select varieties resistant to blackouts.
What should include care?
Cucumber is the same plant as the others, but a bit more whimsical, therefore it requires an increased, but uncomplicated carewhich is to:
- regular and proper watering,
Recommendations for the cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse In order to carry out the cultivation of cucumbers in greenhouses, it is necessary to carry out a number of preparatory works, on which the quality of the crop will depend.
What is a greenhouse
A greenhouse is not too complicated structure for planting cucumbers. It differs from the greenhouse in its height. Such parameters of the greenhouse make it possible to save on heating and lighting. What can a greenhouse be made of:
- For this design there are no restrictions on the use of materials. The frame, like the greenhouse, can be wooden or metal. Polyethylene film, glass or polycarbonate can be found as a coating. At cost, the greenhouse on a wooden frame and with a film coating is considered the cheapest. The price of polycarbonate and metal frame is slightly higher, but if the greenhouse is planned to be used for many years, then the cost of manufacturing the structure will pay off.
Council It is best for a greenhouse to use cellular polycarbonate, which is distinguished by technical indicators. The photo shows examples of greenhouse construction. Also on our resource you can learn about the Glory greenhouse, which is great for growing cucumbers.
Which greenhouse is suitable for growing cucumbers and its equipment
Initially, before growing cucumbers in greenhouses, you need to clearly consider the design and its shape. She may be:
- Square.Rectangular.The height of the structure should be below the average human height. Otherwise, the greenhouse will already be a greenhouse.
Council It is necessary to choose the optimal height of the greenhouse, which allows you to take care of plants. The roof of the structure can be:
Council It will be mandatory to make a window vent in the design. It will allow high-quality airing of the greenhouse and thereby create a normal microclimate inside.
- Very often, greenhouses, which are used for growing cucumbers, have openable roofs. That is, the roof itself is mounted on special hinges. The frame of this design can be metal or wood.
Council Since the greenhouse at its height is not too large, then for its manufacture on a metal frame, you can use not reinforced pipes, but thick reinforcement.
- Basically, greenhouses are used during warmer seasons and they do not require special heating, since they are coated with a simple polyethylene film. It is also worth considering that the reinforcement structure can not be made. The rods are inserted into the ground at a certain depth.
Council It is possible to place bricks or their fragments in the wells for the installation of valves. After the fittings are already inserted, everything is filled with soil and tightly rammed.
- Similar actions are performed for the greenhouse with a wooden frame and film coating. With a different type of construction, everything is different. The framework is metal pipes, which are welded together or wooden strips, which are quite large in size. Cellular polycarbonate or thick polyethylene can act as a coating. This type of construction is more massive and heavy and for this reason it will be necessary to manufacture the foundation for it.
CouncilOn any soil, a pile foundation is suitable, which is not a way to respond to changes in the composition of the soil and its density, which means a greenhouse will last a longer period of time.
- Greenhouse, which will cover the polycarbonate, can be used all year round. Only in this case, it is worthwhile to initially think over the heating system of the structure in cold time. As for lighting, small fluorescent lamps are selected. This is due to the fact that the height of the greenhouse is small and a direct hit on the seedlings of light can adversely affect the growth and development of the culture (there will be deciduous burns).
It is also worth thinking about the irrigation system in the greenhouse. She at the moment can be:
- In manual watering, all actions are performed independently, using buckets or other containers to draw water. Mechanical irrigation differs from the previous one in that it uses hoses that are connected to the main source of water supply and are evenly distributed around the entire perimeter of the structure. You can simply rearrange the hose, holding it with your hands. Automatic watering is the most common and economical type of irrigation. This is due to the fact that when connected, the system is programmed for a specific irrigation time and the type of irrigation itself. Thus, a person does not spend any time on such a process.
Council To connect such an irrigation system, you need to seek help from a specialist in this field. For work there is a special instruction. It is precisely by focusing on her recommendations that you can connect watering. Conclusion!
It can be said that before growing cucumbers in a greenhouse it is necessary to provide it with lighting and irrigation systems. In the case of growing crops in the winter, the heating system is thought out.
Choosing varieties of cucumbers for greenhouse structures
High-quality cultivation of cucumbers in a greenhouse can depend only on the correctly selected variety of crops.At the moment there are several types of cucumbers, which are very popular among experienced gardeners:
Of course, this is a cucumber - we all know the answer perfectly. And what do you know about this vegetable? In addition, 95% of cucumber consists solely of water, which perfectly removes slags from the body, which is valued in cosmetology for whitening properties?
I’m happy to share with you, my dear amateur gardeners, the amazing facts from the life of the green and pimply king of the vegetable garden. They came to the man’s table more than four thousand years ago, during the prehistoric Mesopotamian civilization. Aboriginal Pacific archipelagoes wild cucumber is a real delicacy and even a measure of wealth.
They are buried in earthen holes, wrapped in foliage of banana - such an amazing method of preservation. The more cucumbers the master laid in his vault, the richer it is! In the city of Suzdal, an annual folk festival takes place that gathers lovers of crunchy vegetables from all over the country and even abroad.
Among historical personalities, Napoleon and Catherine II were the most devoted cucumber fans. If you also like cucumbers in any form - fresh, lightly salted, fermented - then this article will be interesting to you. We will try to fully highlight the important nuances of growing this vegetable.
Types of cucumbers
Modern selection science pleases gardeners with a wide range of cucumber varieties and hybrids. According to its biological characteristics, the plant is not a vegetable, but a false berry. It belongs to the pumpkin family.
An interesting fact: a cucumber is a unique vegetable, because it is eaten unripe. And the greener it is, so to speak, the younger, the tastier. For many years, various types of cucumbers have been developed, taking into account the growing areas and tastes of a person.
They grow in different climatic zones: from the sultry Central Asia to Siberia.Vegetable is quite unpretentious in the soil and gives excellent yields with proper care. According to the method of use, cucumbers can be divided into three types: canning, salad, universal. Perhaps you shouldn’t explain the essence of this classification - everything is very clear. that growing cucumbers at home is a matter for experienced and patient hosts.
After all, you need to know a lot of nuances: to understand hybrids and varieties, to be able to grow seedlings, to take into account the rules of symbiosis. Want to get a crop of crispy cucumbers faster than neighbors in the cottage? Then these tips will certainly come in handy. Fruits will appear on a cucumber bed earlier if you use the seedling method. According to the gardeners, vegetables planted in this way please the first crop two weeks faster. Before you grow cucumber seedlings, you need to carry out preliminary work.
Seed material needs warming up. During the month, the seeds should be in a comfortable temperature - about 25 degrees. It is convenient to use household heating appliances. Just place the grains near the battery, convector, gas boiler.
Ensure that the temperature is constant and does not exceed the specified level. Why this long preparation? In order for the seedlings to grow up together and reduce the number of “idle” seeds, which later turn into empty flowers. The next stage is decontamination.
You can process the seed with a special solution, or you can use the folk method to prepare garlic solution. Per 100 ml of cold boiled water, take 30 g of garlic pulp (crushed head, along with the husk).
Insist on garlic water for 24 hours, and then keep cucumber seeds in it for one hour. Next, we will need sewing skills. For seeds, you need to sew small bags of natural fabric. We pack in them seed and prepare another mixture for soaking.
This will be the nutrient solution. In a liter of water, dissolve in a teaspoon of nitrophosphate and wood ash. Soak the bags for 12 hours.
After washing, lay out on a damp cloth and within two days give completely dry and swell. For planting cucumber seedlings need to prepare the soil in advance. It will be necessary to take 1 part of small sawdust and 2 parts of peat and humus.
Based on 10 liters of this soil mixture, add 2 tbsp. nitrophosphate and wood ash. Thoroughly mix this soil preparation and distribute it in small containers - for example, plastic cups. Pull out the seed seeds in containers - 1-2 grains each, slightly watered.
Planting seedlings spend in April. Watering is done once a week. In about a month, the cucumber seedlings will be ready for relocation to the open ground.
Features of growing crops in the greenhouse
In the greenhouse you can grow fresh crispy cucumbers almost all year round. Of course, in the cold months you need to take care of special heating systems and irrigation.
Greenhouse is a fairly profitable business, especially domestic products are in demand in winter. But not only in the agribusiness greenhouses are used. Summer residents also actively use greenhouses for growing vegetables.
The undisputed leader in popularity is cucumber. Seedlings are transported to a greenhouse in early May, when the soil under the film or glass is already well warmed up. Directly planting cucumbers in the greenhouse begins with marking the grooves.
The distance between the rows should be about half a meter, and between individual plants - not less than 20 cm. The well should be filled with organic-mineral mixture and watered well.
Then gently immerse the pot with seedlings (if it is a peat cup) or a plant with a radical clod of earth. Carefully sprinkle with soil and mulch. Vegetable stalks need additional support. Usually, a special trellis is made for this.
The wire or tight cord is stretched along the growth direction of each cucumber row at a height of one and a half to two meters. A week after landing, a twine is attached to each plant. The second end is tied to the trellis.
This method of growing vegetables under film shelter gives good fruit bearing figures. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse is a troublesome process. It is necessary to carefully monitor the temperature, the vegetable will not benefit daily fluctuations.
You also need to moisten the air inside the greenhouse, irrigate the plants with rainwater. If the days are sunny, do not forget to ventilate the greenhouse, but exclude drafts. Give access to the flowers to the bees - so you significantly increase the future harvest.
Not many people know that these amazing plants need a carbon dioxide diet. This gas accelerates the ovary of female fruit bearing flowers. Young cucumbers in the greenhouse need organic fertilizers.
The easiest way is to put a mullein pancake between the beds. Watering the plants in the greenhouse is carried out in the middle of the day, using only warm water. And you can not pour at the root! It is necessary to let the life-giving moisture along the root grooves.
For a simplified method of watering, many gardeners use a drip irrigation system. For growing under greenhouse conditions, the following hybrid varieties are best suited: Hercules F1, Emelya F1, Annushka F1, Dynamite F1, Moscow Greenhouse, Russia.
How to cultivate cucumbers in the open field
Many gardeners prefer to grow cucumber in a non-seedling way. But it should be borne in mind that this culture is sensitive to solar heat and soil qualities. For her, the optimum air temperature is at least 18 degrees.
On the formation of cucumbers in open ground cooling to 10 degrees is detrimental. And if such a regime lasts a long time, then the plants start to hurt and may even die.
Therefore, when planning the beds in the area, try to place cucumber rows on the south side, protected from the cold wind. Soil for planting needs fertile, preferably drained, containing nitrogen in minimum quantities. Sour soil needs to be supplemented with lime before planting cucumbers, and when digging in the autumn, make fresh manure - a bucket for each square meter of bed. Sow vegetable seeds in about 4 cm deep holes, the distance between rows should be about 60 cm.
Seed material is sprinkled on top of the soil and watered. For the seedless way, it is also necessary to carry out preliminary seed treatment, which was described above. method of growing crops, as the use of compost pits. This method will be effective if you strictly follow some rules.
It is suitable for summer cottages with weak soil, which does not indulge in generosity. You need to prepare an organic garden bed in advance. Starting in the spring, when the country works started, we form a pile of waste. Cutting grass, waste leaves, culling seedlings, as well as food remains will be used.
All this we put in, the process of decay will slowly take place inside. In the fall we dig a trench two feet deep. We fill the bottom with sand, lay out the compost, seasoning it with chalk or dry lime.
Above - a layer of fertile soil and again compost so that it rises above the bed by 20 cm. Then another layer of soil. In this form, the ridge will winter. In the early spring, the prepared compost bed is covered with a film in order to retain moisture inside.
At the end of April, we remove the film, level the surface and make transverse grooves. In them we plant cucumber seeds in the usual way. This method can grow cucumbers planting and care that does not require much trouble.
But you should carefully take care of the quality of the compost.It is necessary that your garden bed is truly organic, built according to all the rules, and not a nasty garbage heap. On the compost cucumbers grow actively - just manage to collect!
Rules for the care of the king of vegetable beds
Probably the most important rule - clean beds. Cucumbers do not like to coexist with weeds. About the rules of crop rotation is well known to experienced gardeners. At the same place to have cucumber rows can only be every five years.
Peas, tomatoes, corn, and early potato varieties can be precursors to their planting. In the first month after planting, the soil near the plants must be loosened very carefully and shallowly. In the future, weeding and hilling is carried out at least once a week. Another secret in care is the whole science of how to pinch cucumbers correctly.
It's not easy to tie the stem to a stick with a string. It is necessary to form bushes manually. Run the pinch at a height between the third and fourth full leaf. At the same time it is necessary to break down the buds on the top of the plant.
This will stimulate the development of lateral shoots, which significantly increases the percentage of productive ovaries. Actively growing lashes must be placed on both sides of the bed. And the formation of cucumbers in the greenhouse, more precisely - a strong, fruit-bearing bush should be started with the appearance of the sixth leaf.
Using the method of growing on the trellis, also do not forget about the need for clothespins. Watering should be literate. During active growth and the formation of future fruits cucumbers need a lot of moisture.
When the bed is covered with flowering, watering should be reduced to once a week. And if you are already harvesting, then water the bushes every three days. In no case do not pour a hose, it is better to use the usual watering can!
Water should not be poured on the plants themselves, but the soil beneath them. At the cottage, cucumbers are fed every two weeks in the fruiting phase. Moreover, it is necessary to introduce organic and mineral fertilizers in turn. Greenhouse plants are fed 5 times for the entire season.
As organic fertilizers, gardeners use fermented infusion of chicken manure or mullein. Among synthetic means it is better to give preference to fertilizers, which are designed specifically for pumpkin crops. All are crazy about the smell of the first cucumber, plucked from their own beds.
And when fresh vegetables are already a little tired, I want to quickly try lightly salted crispy cucumbers. Then comes the conservation period. Rolling up the dimpled kornyshonchki in banks, we dream how we will taste them in the winter and remember the summer days.
Greenhouse requirements for year-round cucumber production
Depending on the climatic region, greenhouses of various designs are used. In any case, the facility must be heated and reliably protected from the effects of precipitation. You can buy ready-made modern greenhouses for use in the winter or build your own.
Recommendations for equipping winter greenhouses
It is important that the greenhouse keeps heat well and carries minimal heat losses. Therefore, you need to carefully consider the design.
Preference is given to these types of winter greenhouses:
- Pit - due to the deepening into the ground they perfectly retain heat and practically have no energy losses.
- Thermal greenhouses - thanks to a two-layer polycarbonate coating, they allow to maintain a favorable temperature regime with low heating costs.
- Shed-wall - get a lot of heat from solar energy, do not require additional communications.
The most reliable for cold pores are greenhouses, covered with polycarbonate. Only such material is able to provide the necessary level of insulation in the northern areas.
In areas with mild winters and little rainfall for growing cucumbers, you can get by with glass or even reinforced plastic wrap in several layers.
What should be the perfect plot
Of great importance is the location of the greenhouse, as it is an artificially heated structure. Special conditions are necessary for its normal functioning:
- The slope of the terrain should not exceed 10 ° to the south.
- The site should be fenced with trees or other structures from the cold winds on the north side.
- It is desirable to place on a small hill, where precipitations and sufficient solar lighting do not accumulate.
- Nearby you need to have a source of water for irrigating the appropriate temperature.
- The building should be able to bring the necessary communications (electricity, heating).
Creating the necessary conditions at all stages
Although cucumbers are not too whimsical culture, but in the winter cold and they require additional care. Optimum performance of temperature, humidity, light and ventilation will help to maintain special equipment.
Little about heating systems
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter in the areas of the middle belt and to the north will not do without installing a heating system. Indoors, it is necessary to constantly maintain the temperature within + 18-25 ° С, and it is impossible to implement this due to even the most thoughtful design and high-quality covering material. Therefore, based on the size and type of the room, as well as the remoteness of the heating system, they install suitable heating devices.
In most cases, use of autonomous systems, such as electric boilers, collectors, stove heating.
The latter option is the most economical and simple to perform, and with proper installation, it gives even a very high efficiency. In addition, for more uniform heating of the room, infrared heaters or fan heaters are used.
Artificial lighting - a necessary criterion
Without access to plants of sufficient light it is impossible to get a good harvest. Cucumbers need at least 14 hours of coverage per day, which the sun can not on short winter days.
Lamps and installations of various designs are used for lighting up, but the most suitable option for growing cucumbers in the winter is LED lights.
Although they are more expensive than, for example, mercury or luminescent, but their service life is much longer - about 10 years. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the light waves are in a favorable range, and it is impossible to get a plant burn from such lamps.
How to ensure optimal hydration
Cucumbers are the kind of culture that feels best at maximum air humidity of 75-95%. In greenhouse conditions, when heating is in operation, it is difficult to maintain a high water content in the air. To do this, you can periodically spray water with a spray gun, arrange the vessels with liquid in the room, use special humidifiers.
Plants require frequent watering, so for large-scale greenhouses, in most cases, automatic systems are used for this or cucumbers are grown hydroponically. The installation of such equipment at the initial stage requires the investment of certain funds, but later they quickly pay for themselves.
Why do I need a ventilation system
Without ventilation and free air circulation inside the room, especially at high humidity levels, ideal conditions are created for the development of fungal and bacterial diseases. Therefore, a well-thought-out ventilation system is an important condition for successful cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse in winter. There are two ways to stimulate air circulation: in a natural way - through open doors or air vents and forcibly - through ventilation devices.
During the winter frosts there can be no question of airing through the window, it entails large heat losses and sharp drops in temperature. An ordinary fan can help, which should be turned on 2 times a day for short intervals of 5-10 minutes. In addition, if you are not going to grow parthenocarpic varieties, ventilation will contribute to the process of pollination.
When buying a fan, you need to pay attention to its capacity: for an air volume of 10 cubic meters. m will be enough power to 200 kum. m per hour Too powerful devices in a small greenhouse can only harm.
Fans equipped with humidity and temperature sensors are automatically turned on and off when the set values change.
Preparatory work with the soil
In a fully equipped greenhouse, the next step is to prepare the soil for cultivation. This procedure takes time, so it must be carried out about a month before the beginning of the landing of the plants.
Methods of soil disinfection
Before using, the soil must be cleaned of weeds (their seeds) and sanitized, especially if it was taken from the garden or used to grow other crops. The easiest way is treatment with water vapor, after which most of the pathogenic microorganisms die. More effective methods are the use of toxic substances and special preparations that require strict compliance with the instructions for use:
- Copper sulfate - with 7% water solution, the soil is treated at the rate of 0.5 l per square meter.
- Formalin is poured into narrow ditches, the greenhouse is sealed for a while, and then the windows are left open for 14 days to volatilize the substance.
- Store preparations - used in accordance with the attached instructions.
The processed soil can be brought in the greenhouse in 3-4 weeks.
Soil mix preparation
Preferred soils for growing cucumbers in greenhouse conditions in winter are sandy loam and loam, enriched with mineral and organic components. To give lightness to such a substrate, you can add a little sand or pine sawdust. The ideal mixture is a combination of soddy soil and ordinary humus. And you can make a substrate for cultivation on the basis of peat, for which in appropriate proportions are taken:
- peat - 5 parts,
- compost or humus - 3 parts
- garden soil - 2 parts.
For enrichment with mineral substances, ammonium nitrate is introduced at the rate of 15 g per square meter, superphosphate - 40 per square meter, ashes or potassium salt - respectively 200 g or 25 g per square meter. For fertilizer impregnation, the soil is left under the plastic wrap for 3-4 weeks.
Accommodation in the greenhouse and arrangement
Before we talk about how to plant the beds in the greenhouse, you need to say about him. This construction should stand firmly on the ground. Some experienced growers even make a special base so that the whole structure is held for exactly many years. But this is only a recommendation for a beginner. It will be enough to start an ordinary greenhouse, it will provide profitability for the first few years.
The greenhouse must be protected from strong winds from the north and west. It is best to build a fence for this. The soil should be chosen flat for the greenhouse, it will facilitate the care of plants. The frame may be metal or wood. Each has its own advantages. But it is worth considering - the wooden frame will last only a few years, and then it will have to be replaced with a new one. The best material to create a fencing surface remains plastic film. It provides the reliability of the construction with slopes at an angle of 20 degrees.
It is necessary to think over the irrigation system in advance, so that in the future you do not have to do serious repairs or restructuring, but quietly take care of cucumbers. The most optimal ratio of volume and area is 2: 1.Thus, a sufficient amount of heat and humidity will be stored in the room to ensure rapid growth of the plants.
Soil and sowing
Care and maintenance of quality soil is very important. In many ways, the properties of the soil determine the quantity and quality of the crop. First of all, you need to know that cucumbers grow well in the soil, the acidity of which is approximately zero.
For novice gardeners, there are the following signs by which you can easily determine the level of soil acidity:
- High - mint, buttercup, ivan-da-maria, wood lice, horse sorrel, plantain, horsetail, etc. grow on this plot.
- Neutral - creeping wheatgrass, coltsfoot, chamomile, odorless, garden thistle, field bindweed, etc. are common here.
It is recommended to lower the high level of acidity with the help of improvised substances that can be easily found in the household of even an inexperienced gardener. For this, cement dust, ash, slaked lime, etc. can be used.
To ensure the maximum amount of nutrients in the soil, work on its fertilizer must begin in the fall. Upon the arrival of spring, it is necessary to dig up the soil to a depth of not less than 25 cm. Then add the humus prepared from the autumn, mix it with the soil. Such a substance can be created independently using straw, dried leaves and grass, manure, as well as sawdust. Next, you should carry out watering and cover the area, which is intended for the cultivation of cucumbers. Under the film, the earth should warm up to 150 degrees Celsius.
The main stages characterizing the proper care of cucumbers in the greenhouse:
- regular watering
- maintaining the required temperature of the soil,
- detailed monitoring and maintenance of air temperature.
Cucumbers are in need of moisture. Before fruiting, watering should be done once every two or three days, depending on the specific situation. From the beginning of the development of the first fruits, the frequency must be increased to daily watering. Fertilizer soil is desirable to produce after watering.
Method of wetting the soil, you can choose a different one. The most suitable are special sprinklers that can be optimally located in the greenhouse. Plants are very fond of systematic and abundant watering. The best time for such a process is sunny weather, but you should exclude any drafts and close all air vents or doors.
To know how to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, you need to know some secrets.
To increase female flowers, and thereby increase yields, you can use the following trick: after the first buds appear, watering is reduced, the same frequency and amount of water resumes only after the flowers disappear.
The temperature during the growth and development of the plant is optimal at a level of 20 or more degrees of heat during the day and 17–18 degrees at night. During active fruiting, the air temperature should not fall below 18 at night, during the day a maximum of 28 degrees Celsius. The soil should remain warm all the time, within 22-24 degrees of heat.
Humidity is also of great importance: until the development of the fruit - 80%, in the subsequent time - 90%. Sudden changes in temperature and humidity have a negative effect on many factors. In this case, the disease may develop. And the taste of cucumbers, like peppers, is greatly reduced.
The technology of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse involves the formation of a vertical bush. To do this, at a level of 170–200 cm, wire or cornice of various materials is carried out over the rows. Connect the bush with a soft cord, tied on the stem of the lungs and a loose knot. Then simply strap the string slightly as the plant grows. This is one of the easiest ways that gardeners use.
It is necessary to form a shrub after the sixth, maximum eighth leaves appear. The flowers that appear in the first three sinuses, you must pinch.The average length of the stem varies from half a meter to three meters.
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse is a fairly time-consuming process.
Here are the most common problems and solutions:
- Yellow or just brighten the leaves. This is a sign of a large amount of nitrogen in the soil. Similar symptoms may occur in peppers and tomatoes. This problem must be solved gradually with the help of urea. To do this, take 50 grams of urea per 10 liters of water, and water the plants.
- The growth of the plant is active, but flowering is scarce and later. To ensure profitability, it is necessary to feed with potassium-phosphorus solutions. The calculation for this: a solution bucket for 8-10 bushes.
- A small number of ovaries. In this case, proper care is provided by fertilizer from chicken manure. It is important to observe the air temperature in the 17-18 degrees of heat. And at night to create airing.
Cucumbers: landing in the greenhouse
To grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, you must first grow seedlings. It can be grown in pots on a window sill from 2-4 to 26-30 April, then to plant cucumbers in the greenhouse on May 1-22. If the greenhouse is covered with a film in 2 layers and there is additional heating, then there is no need to grow seedlings at home. Cucumber seedlings are grown immediately in a greenhouse on a small garden bed. The rules for growing cucumbers prescribe the sowing of seeds somewhere on April 12-14, and then after 24-28 days (approximately May 1 - 13), planting of seedlings on the whole area of the greenhouse.
Cucumbers must be removed daily to avoid over-ripening of the fruit and overloading the entire plant.
Seeds for seedlings are sown in cups, sachets or pots that are 10 × 10 or 8 × 8 cm. The soil mix is poured into the pots: take 1 part of old small sawdust, 2 parts of humus and peat. On a bucket of this mixture add 2 tbsp. ash wood and 1 tbsp. nitrofoski. You can also prepare another version of the mixture: 1 part of sod land, humus, sawdust, peat or 1 part of humus and peat, and 1 tbsp of liter should be added to the bucket of this mixture. ash and organic fertilizer (for example, "Barrier"). Mix the prepared soil mixture well and put it in pots to the top. Then pour a warm pale pink solution of manganese. Condense, pour the soil to the pot was full. Ready-made pots are put on a bed one by one without distances between them, i.e. bridge way.
The temperature that must be maintained when growing cucumber seedlings at night is at least 13-15 ° C. At night, you can hide the seedlings, and during the day you will need to remove additional covering material. If there is no wind during the day and the air temperature warms up to 20 ° C and higher, you can open the window of the greenhouse on one side.
In a greenhouse, the temperature must be maintained at a constant level (the difference between day and night temperatures is no more than 4-6 ° C).
Temperature regime for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse.
Excessively high temperature causes the stretching and weakening of cucumbers, and if the temperature is below the optimum, then the growth of the plant is somewhat inhibited, without affecting, however, its normal development. The temperature in the greenhouse is regulated by airing, which can be enhanced by making it longer as the outdoor temperature rises. Over time, the door of the greenhouse can be opened for the whole day, and then for the night.
Sown seeds, as well as the seedlings that have appeared, are poured over with a small watering-dish with very small holes. The rate of irrigation depends on the growth phase of the plant and on the temperature of the surrounding air. In order to provide the plants with water well, it is necessary to water them so that the water reaches the depth of the roots.
Calculate the required amount of water can be the depth of the roots. If the depth of the roots of cucumber seedlings is 3 cm, then it is necessary to water at the rate of 3 liters of water for 1 m ?.When the cucumbers start fruiting, the roots penetrate to a depth of 15-17 cm, then water should be taken at the rate of 15-17 liters of water per 1 m ?.
Top dressing of seedlings of cucumbers in the greenhouse
Low-growing cucumber seedlings in greenhouses need to be fed every 8-10 days. For this use the following solutions:
The first dressing is done when 1-2 permanent leaves appear. The second - in the phase of 3-4 leaves.
Planting cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse
For better lighting, plant seedlings in a staggered manner.
Cucumber seedlings are planted in a greenhouse at a permanent place when the plants have 5-6 permanent leaves, a thick stalk, 1-2 tendrils and a well-developed root system.
Before planting cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse, they do moisturizing irrigation. In the greenhouse, in the place where cucumbers will grow, they make holes, the depth of which corresponds to the size of the pot, and the distance between the holes is 50-60 cm. Then the wells are watered with a solution of organic fertilizer "Barrier" (per 10 liters of warm (30 ° C) water 5 tbsp.), Consuming 0.5 liters per 1 well. Planting seedlings vertically, falling asleep only a soil pot.
If the seedlings are slightly stretched, then you can fall asleep the stalk to the cotyledon leaves with a mixture of peat and sawdust.
Seedling or soil?
The question of whether to sow cucumbers for seedlings at home, then to plant them in a greenhouse does not have a clear answer.
This vegetable has a weak root system that reacts badly to transplantation. The sucking hairs that nourish the plant do not regenerate when they break, and the cucumber begins to absorb moisture only when new ones grow, therefore seedlings take root badly. But if you still decide to get a harvest a couple of weeks earlier, you can try.
Sowing is carried out in cups without a bottom, so that during transplantation you can press the plant together with the earthy clod into the prepared well. You can use newspaper cups, which land without releasing the roots from newspapers.
Rolled newspapers or cups without a bottom fit tightly in a box and fill with soil. You can use ready-made special soil for pumpkin. The mixture is made from two parts of the soil, one part of peat and half of the sand.
Soak the seeds before sowing in water heated to 45-50 degrees with the addition of a small amount of potassium permanganate (the solution should be medium-pink). This procedure will help disinfect the seeds and warm them for better germination.
Heated seeds are buried in 2 cm cups, the box is covered with foil and put in a warm place. After five days, the first shoots will appear.
An important procedure for growing seedlings is hardening.
Indoor Cucumbers without tempering, do not tolerate abrupt change of conditions cultivation.
In order to accustom cucumbers to a lower temperature regime. You can open the vents, carry boxes on the balcony. AT night hours the optimum temperature is 15-16 degrees.
When to land?
Terms of planting cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse are of great importance to obtain an early harvest. The age of seedlings for planting in a greenhouse should be 20-25 days. At the time of planting the soil should warm up to 16-18 degrees, it happens by about the middle of May.
Around this time, you can sow cucumbers directly in the greenhouse. If a warm bed is prepared, then you can sow vegetables two weeks earlier.For sowing the wells are prepared and placed in them at once 2-3 seeds. Distance between rows when landing should be from one to one and a half meters, and in a row the plants are planted 20-30 cm apart.
When growing seedlings in newspaper cups, you need to remove the bottom from them and put the sprout in the hole along with the walls. Soak the roots of the damp newspaper easily, and with such a landing will not be damaged. Plastic cups are placed in the hole and, holding a clod of earth with a hand, the second one carefully removes the glass upwards.
After planting cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse or sowing seeds, the wells are watered and must be mulched to prevent the formation of a crust. To prevent weed growth in between rows the soil is covered with a black film or an opaque fabric. This technique is necessary, as in the greenhouse weed between the rows when cucumber lash grows are quite problematic.
We form bushes
Cucumbers, when grown in greenhouses, can be grown by creeping on the ground or tied to a frame.
The purpose of the garter is the direction of growth of the lashes so that they do not spread out beyond the boundaries of the ridges.
The main stalk of cucumber pinch after the fifth leaf grows. After pinching the plant begins active growth of lateral shoots.
Pinching needed. Since the ovaries of the fruit are formed mainly on the side stems.
For more information on how to grow early cucumbers in a greenhouse, you can see and hear in this video:
How to improve the warming up of a greenhouse?
If a warm pillow is not made in your greenhouse, you can raise the temperature in it using some techniques:
- Poultice. It is carried out after the morning watering. Watering the plant, the greenhouse closes for 2 hours in spring and half an hour in hot summer weather. At the same time, the temperature in the greenhouse increases sharply, which contributes to the growth of cucumbers.
- The use of solar heat. The essence of this method is to let the heat into the greenhouse and not let it out. Retention contributes to the quality of the material used for the shelter and the location of the structure. It should be spherical and located in such a way as to maximally be illuminated by the sun from the south side. The northern wall of the greenhouse should be covered with foil or an opaque cloth. In this case, the heat from the south will not leave the structure.
- Bottled water. Plastic bottles are filled with water and placed around the perimeter of the greenhouse, for stability they are slightly buried in the ground. During the day, the water heats up in the sun. And at night, evaporating, it gives off heat to the plants.
All these simple techniques will help you to obtain consistently high yields of cucumbers in the greenhouse at the site without high material costs.
Flower Board Tips
When forming beds it is necessary to take into account the size and location of the greenhouse. Their most favorable direction is from north to south.
The beds should be shaped in such a way as to best distribute the space and in the future not to experience any inconvenience in caring for the plants. First, the ground is carefully digged, loosened, and then determined with the number of ridges:
- One bed in the center is convenient to maintain, there is access from all sides, but the site is used irrationally.
- Two beds, separated by central, lateral and transverse paths, further simplify maintenance, but from an area planning point of view, it is uneconomical.
- Two side wide beds with a single track in the center are quite good in operation, the area is used efficiently.
- Three beds - the best solution for a wide greenhouse, especially if the bed in the center to make large, and the side - narrower.
The number of beds varies depending on the size and the selected section of the greenhouse. For marking wooden bars are used, which will keep the shape of the ridges. The width of the walkway should be at least 60 cm, it can be laid out with stone, brick, paving stone, or simply covered with gravel.
Competently selected varieties - a pledge of the harvest
When purchasing seeds for seedlings, one should have an idea about parthenocarpic hybrids of cucumbers. They are mainly grown in greenhouses in the winter, they do not need pollination, these hybrids are resistant to various diseases:
- "Emerald F1"
- F1 Murashka
- "Blick F1"
- "Gerda F1"
- Chipmunk F1
- "F1 Romance"
- "Orpheus F1" and others.
The only drawback of parthenocarpic cucumbers is the not too saturated taste and aroma of the fruit.
Therefore, if you want to grow a tasty crop for home use in small quantities, choose the usual shade-tolerant varieties. But then during the flowering period it will be necessary to artificially pollinate the plants.
How to grow healthy seedlings
The ideal time for sowing cucumbers in winter is the second half of November. In the greenhouse, they are advised to grow it in a seedling way, thanks to which plants are sturdier and more resistant to diseases, the period for harvest is reduced. If store seeds are used, there is no need for preplant preparation. And personally harvested seeds should be:
- Sort and select intact and full-bodied.
- Soak for a few days in water at room temperature with the addition of aloe juice.
- Hardened for 2 days at a temperature of 0-2 ° C.
After that, using small pots, containers or peat tablets, produce sowing on seedlings. In each container to a depth of not more than 2 cm, one seed is buried, then it is covered with a damp cloth. The first week before the emergence of shoots it is necessary to maintain the temperature during the day about + 24-28 ° C, and then you can reduce it to +20 ° C. Seedlings are not subjected to dive operations due to poor survival after transplantation.
During this period, they also organize additional lighting up to prevent the shoots from drawing out. As you grow, you will have to gradually fill up the soil in pots. After 3-4 weeks, after the development of strong stems with a height of 10-25 cm with rich green leaves and a formed root system, you can start planting in the ground.
Overexposed seedlings are uncomfortable in disembarkation and take root rather poorly.
Planting and aftercare
Grow cucumbers in the greenhouse is convenient on the trellis, which greatly facilitates the care and reduces the risk of developing fetal diseases. To do this, before planting on the edges of the beds set the pillars, between which stretch the wire or strong fishing line. Plants on a low trellis up to 0.5 m do not need a garter; they simply throw shoots through a fishing line. And long shoots on a high trellis tied up with twine.
Before planting the seedlings on the beds prepare the holes with a depth of 10-15 cm and water them abundantly. The average density of landing on 1 square. m is 2-3 plants for vigorous and 3-4 plants for compact varieties. Thus, there are 2 traditional planting schemes for the greenhouse:
- For strongly gliding varieties - in one line with a minimum distance between rows of 1.0-1.2 m, between plants - 0.3-0.5 m.
- For compact hybrids - in two lines with a minimum distance between the lines of 0.5 between plants - 0.3 m. The landing is done in a checkerboard pattern.
Good seedlings are planted vertically, overexposed - obliquely, sprinkling the bottom of the shoot with soil. Root cervix sprinkled with sand to prevent the development of root rot.
Immediately after planting the plants are well watered. Peat pots are placed in the well so that the edges are level with the ground and pour 3 liters of water into each well.
At first, the plants do not need strong lighting, just at least 12 hours a day. During the vegetative period, the blue range with wavelengths of 400-500 HM is considered more favorable for plants, and red in the 600-700 HM range during flowering and fruiting. They should be watered very abundantly every 5 days before flowering and every 2 days thereafter. The temperature in the greenhouse during the day should not fall below +22 ° C, and at night - below +18 ° C.
Growth conditions of culture in greenhouse in winter
Experienced growers grow crops in the winter in greenhouses. A good result depends on the equipment of the greenhouse, the proper preparation of the soil, the selection of seeds, the timely application of fertilizers.
Plants in greenhouses are not affected by powdery mildew. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 12 degrees, but slowly and rarely. At a temperature of 25–27 degrees, friendly shoots appear 4–5 days after sowing.
This mode is necessary for the growth and development of plants. When the temperature decreases, the growth retards, the plants get sick or die at all. Cucumber does not tolerate lowering the temperature to 0 degrees.
The seedlings are most sensitive to lowering the temperature, but plants with two true leaves are significantly resistant to cold. Therefore, in order to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse during the winter period, it is necessary to provide conditions for the growth, development, flowering and fruiting of the plant.
Mineral and organic supplements
2-3 days after planting, soil is fertilized with urea, dissolving 1 g of the substance in 1 liter of water. On 1 square. m is about 0.5 liters of such a solution. A week after that, make a complex mineral supplement, including potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. To do this, put 4 g of each fertilizer containing these elements in a bucket of water. Solution consumption - up to 1 l per 1 sq. m
At the beginning of flowering and every 10 days of the fruit ripening period, it is necessary to enrich the soil with organic matter using an aqueous solution of bird droppings or mullein in appropriate proportions of 1:25 or 1:10. About 5-6 liters of such dressing are consumed per 1 m2 of bed area.
Soil enrichment with the necessary substances for cucumbers allows to increase the quality of the crop and the duration of fruiting.
The use of advanced methods of cultivation of cucumbers in the off-season, familiarization with the experience of experienced vegetable growers allows you to get the desired crop at the lowest cost and in a relatively short time. Modern greenhouses, equipped with all necessary, help to facilitate the cultivation of cucumbers in the winter.
Garter cucumber in the greenhouse
The scheme of the formation of cucumber.
After 10-14 days after planting, when the cucumbers will form 8-9 permanent leaves, they are tied up with wire with plastic twine. The plant is formed in 1 stalk, which grows up to 2 m, while the lateral shoots in the bosom of the lower 4 true leaves are plucked out at the very beginning of their formation (or this process is called blinding). The next 5-6 side shoots, which come from the leaf axils, pinch the tops, leaving up to 20 cm in length. Leaves are left above the length of 35-40 cm and also pinch the tops. The shoots, which are even higher, near the wire, are left 45–50 cm long.
Watering and spraying cucumbers
Leaves affected by downy powdery mildew must be removed.
To grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain the air humidity in summer during the growing season up to 90-95% by spraying (especially on hot days). Watering cucumbers in a greenhouse on sunny days is carried out in the morning 2-3 times a week. On cloudy days, you can water less often - 1-2 times a week.
Depending on the phase of the plant and on the weather, they consume a certain amount of water. Before the flowering phase, water consumption is 5–6 l, in the flowering phase, 8–10 l, during fruiting, 13–18 l per 1 m ?. The temperature in the greenhouse must be maintained during the day 22-24 ° C, and at night 18-20 ° C (between day and night temperatures, the difference should be no more than 3-4 ° C). Too high a temperature causes weakening and stretching of the plants. Therefore, cucumbers grown in greenhouses at high temperatures require intensive ventilation. To do this, open the doors, vents or lift the film along one of the sides, if the greenhouse film.
When in the greenhouse the illumination is too high and the temperature rises, despite ventilation, it is necessary to carry out shading. This requires diffused light. Then apply spraying on the outside of the greenhouse with a weak aqueous solution of chalk.
With the development of plants, the soil temperature in the greenhouse should be 21-22 ° C. You also need to always keep the beds clean of weeds. The first 3 weeks after planting, when the plants are still small, very carefully loosen to a depth of 2-3 cm so as not to damage the roots. Further loosening will need to be carried out depending on the passage of irrigation water into the soil. If the soil is tamped, then when watering water will be bad to pass. Then, between the rows of plants, the forks make punctures to the depth of the horns - 4-6 punctures per 1 m. The root system is not disturbed by such loosening.
In order for cucumbers in the greenhouse to develop more intensively and the yield would increase, it is necessary to increase the carbon dioxide content in the air. This can be done by laying out pieces of dry ice in a greenhouse or by placing a barrel with a slurry tamper. Decomposing, manure releases carbon dioxide directly into the air. To speed up the fermentation process, the talker should be mixed regularly.
Top dressing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Application of top dressing with single row and double row plantings.
During the summer, when growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, 4-5 fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers is carried out.
The first dressing is necessary for plants before flowering: 10 liters of water 1 tbsp. fertilizer complex "Agricola-forward." When the cucumbers bloom, they are fed with such a solution: 1 tsp is taken for 10 liters of water. l. superphosphate, urea, potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. fertilizer organic "Fertility".
When the cucumbers in the greenhouse begin to bear fruit, they are fed 4 times during fruiting. 1st dressing: for 1 liter of water take 1 tbsp. from the liquid fertilizer "Gumat potassium", or "Agricola Vegeta", or "Ideal", and 1 tsp. nitrofoski, 5 liters per 1 m ?.
After 10-11 days after the 1st feeding, the 2nd is carried out: 0.5 liters of mullein or other manure are mixed and 1 tsp. potassium sulfate with 10 liters of water, and then water cucumbers at the rate of 5.5–6 ln 1 m ?.
Repeat dressing again after 10 days with the following mixture: 1 tbsp to a bucket of water. nitrofoski, 2 tbsp. fertilizer "Barrier", spend on watering 6-9 liters of solution per 1 m ?. In the absence of a mullein, it can be replaced with ready-made feedings, for example, “Feeder. You can also use as a manure substitute green grass fertilizing (star sprout, wood louse, nettle, quinoa, plantain). Herbs are chopped and 1 kg of this mass is poured with 10 liters of hot water, stirred well, left for a day or more, then filtered and watered at the rate of 3-4 liters per 1 m ?.
10 days after the 3rd dressing make the 4th dressing. Bred 1 tbsp. fertilizer organic "Fertility" and 1 tbsp. fertilizer complex "Agricola Forward" in 10 l of water and then water cucumbers at the rate of 5 l per 1 m ?.
Tips experienced growers on growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Getting a rich crop of cucumbers in the open field in our unpredictable climate is almost impossible task.
Therefore, more and more vegetable growers are choosing for themselves the option of growing cucumbers in greenhouses.
However, even with this method, it is worthwhile to learn the basic rules and learn the secrets of obtaining the maximum number of fruits during the summer period.
How to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse and in the greenhouse?
Cucumber - one of the most useful and early vegetables. If you eat cucumbers every day, then the human body is cleared of harmful substances, toxins and slags. He also perfectly satisfies hunger, as cucumbers consist of water, which contains various minerals. It is water that stretches the stomach and creates a feeling of saturation. It is impossible to recover from cucumbers, since their caloric content is no more than 15 kcal per 100 g of vegetable. Grow it without greenhouse conditions can be very difficult.Planting cucumbers in a greenhouse or in a greenhouse takes little time, cultivation does not take much time and great effort. You can get a huge harvest of such a useful vegetable.
The greenhouse must be placed in such a place that it is not affected by the north and north-east winds, it is also necessary to build a fence. Desirable that the soil in this place was fertile. The optimal area of the greenhouse is 2: 1. It is this size of the greenhouse that does not depend on temperature changes outside. To cover it is better to use a transparent film, as the sun's rays penetrate well through it and it does not let moisture out from the street. If cucumbers are grown in the winter, then the greenhouse is made from other scrap materials.
It is necessary to prepare a place for the future greenhouse in autumn. It is necessary to disinfect the blue vitriol with the wooden parts of the greenhouse, the metal ones - it is necessary to paint it. Remove 3-4 cm of topsoil. Add special fertilizers to the soil, such as: unfermented dung of 20-25 kg per 1 square meter, lime 200 g, potash and phosphate fertilizers of 50 g. After that it is necessary to dig up the earth. If the land will be prepared in the spring, then special non-fat manure must be added to the groundto avoid various infections. According to agronomists, the best soil for cucumbers is:
Planting cucumbers in the greenhouse
The beds in the greenhouse make a height of 20 cm, seedlings are planted 30 cm apart. If you plant more densely, then the plant will get less light than it needs. At a height of 2 m, the rope is stretched over the rows so that the plants can trail.
Cucumbers germinate in 5 days at a temperature in the greenhouse of 30 degrees, if the temperature is not higher than 12 degrees, the plants will not germinate. Most optimal temperature is 20 degrees, with her cucumbers germinate in 20 - 25 days.
How to grow cucumbers in the greenhouse? Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse is that it is necessary to form a bush, tie up, water, feed, pinch and pollinate, if necessary. Cucumber grows one stem. After about 5 days, you need to tie up the plant so that it does not spread on the ground and does not break. Branching is limited with the help of plucking: tearing off the upper part of the stem, when it outgrows the rope stretched over the rows.
Also, if desired, pinch off side shoots and flowers. In the middle part of the sprout, pinch lateral shoots above the first leaf, and at the top of the sprout - above the second leaf. Also, antennae, yellowed leaves, shoots from which the crop has been harvested are removed.
Greenhouse cucumbers must be of a certain type. When choosing a cucumber variety, special attention should be paid to the way they are pollinated. If the vegetable is pollinated by bees, then it is necessary to make the bee easily get into the greenhouse. It is also necessary to feed the bee with sugar syrup, which is infused on male flowers.
When planting cucumbers need to be watered only with warm water. In cold weather it is better to water in the morning on a sunny day. In the warm season it is necessary to water the plants 2 times a day or once in the evening and very plentiful, since cucumbers grow most of all at night. The earth needs to be loosened so that oxygen penetrates better to the roots and that they do not fester.
In the warm season it is necessary to open a greenhouse every day so that plants are enriched with oxygen. The land should be constantly wet, because cucumbers are very fond of water, they themselves are almost 90% water. You must wear a spray bottle on the watering can in order not to damage the plant through the ground, because the roots are very close to the surface. In order to increase the yield of cucumbers, you can sometimes dry the ground.
Initially, when cucumbers give only the first fruits, they need to be collected in the morning. In the future, you need to collect a couple of times a day, as they grow very quickly. If you do not harvest in time, the overgrown fruits will help to reduce the total yield. It is also necessary to remove ugly and damaged ovaries in a timely manner.
Diseases of cucumbers
The most dangerous disease in planting cucumbers is powdery mildew. The leaves of the plants are covered with a specific bloom, dry up and fall off. With this disease, the plant disappears completely. You can save the plant if sprinkle the leaves with a solution of potassium permanganate or sprinkle with sulfur. It is necessary to treat the plant in warm sunny weather.
False powdery disease manifests itself in the form of oily spots on the leaves. Then the leaves turn yellow and fall away. At the first signs of such a disease, it is necessary to stop feeding and adding the plant. Treat with a special solution that is used for mildews disease. It is necessary to air the greenhouse more often and not to allow the temperature to drop. up to 18 degrees heat.
Such insects as ants, aphids, and mites can also be very harmful to cucumbers. For their extermination use special preparations.
If you correctly perform all the requirements necessary for the cultivation of cucumbers, then in the future you can get large volumes of the crop.
Planting cucumbers seeds in a greenhouse and growing seedlings
Almost every owner of a cottage or a country house builds a greenhouse or greenhouse for growing vegetables in his garden plot. Most often, they are planted cucumbers and tomatoes.
To get an early harvest, gardeners equip greenhouses in spring and plant cucumbers in the greenhouse with seeds or seedlings.
Cucumbers are distinguished by a superficial tender root system, therefore the ground for their planting should be special - lightweight, nutritious, moisture absorbing and well breathable. This soil can be prepared from equal parts of humus, peat and garden soil.
To get the harvest as early as possiblegreenhouses are filled with dung beds that are made warm. These beds are made as follows:
- In the greenhouse you need to make a high bed, on which manure is placed on top.
- Preparing a fertile soil, which manure covers. The soil layer must be at least twenty-five centimeters.
On a warm bed, the seeds are heated, and shoots appear in three to four days. The downside to growing cucumbers on manure is that when the temperature of the air is high, the organic material gets very hot, and the plants can burn. Therefore, you need to monitor the temperature of the air, which in the greenhouse should be from +18 to +30 degrees.
For indoor use are selected hybrid varieties of vegetables. They are self-pollinated, start to bear fruit earlier and are resistant to various diseases. These hybrids include:
- New F 1 - a variety with good taste, from which fifty days after germination, you can get a harvest. Seeds are sown from each other at a distance of forty-five centimeters.
- Annie F 1 - disease-resistant, pollination-free high-yielding cucumbers, which are recommended for salting.
- Dynamite F 1 - high-yielding variety that does not require pollination for planting and growing in greenhouses. Sowing of seeds is made in steps of fifty centimeters.
- Emelya F 1 - self-pollinated cucumbers, ripening forty-five days after emergence. Each fruit weighs up to one hundred and fifty centimeters.
- Hercules F 1 - disease-resistant, shade-tolerant, late-ripening variety. When planting on a bed, the distance between plants should be at least fifty centimeters.
In addition to hybrids, cucumbers can also be grown in greenhouses, which gardeners have grown for many years. These include varieties:
When to plant cucumbers in the greenhouse? Sowing seeds directly into the ground can be practiced only after the soil in the greenhouse warms up well. If you use your ownrather than purchased planting materialbefore sowing it is processed:
Before sowing in the greenhouse, beds are prepared that need to be shed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Cucumber seeds should be positioned so that no more than four plants per square meter. Seeds are buried in the soil for two or three centimeters, sprinkled with soil and watered. From above beds you can cover with a film that will hold moisture and will not allow the soil to dry up. It will need to be cleaned every day for a while in order to air the plantings and, if necessary, moisten the soil. As soon as shoots appear, the shelter is removed.
If cucumbers were planted on a warm garden bed in a greenhouse, in the daytime in warm weather, plantings must be aired and covered only for the night. In regions with a warm climate, compost can be used instead of manure for arranging a warm bed.
When planting cucumber seeds for seedlings every gardener must decide for themselves. Planting dates depend on the climate of your region and the type of greenhouse. Seedlings are planted in the ground after it has warmed up to + 15 ... + 20 degrees. If the greenhouse is not heated, plants are planted in the north-western regions at the end of May, in the Central regions - at the beginning of May, and in areas with warmer climate - in the middle of April. Plant seedlings in the greenhouse Should be at the age of fourteen to twenty days.
For sowing seeds, separate plastic containers or peat tablets are prepared. It is not recommended to plant cucumbers in common boxes, since the tender and fragile roots of these plants do not tolerate the transplant. Seed tanks are filled with special soil purchased at the store. The substrate can be prepared independently by mixing the following components for this:
- peat - 2 parts,
- sawdust - 1 part,
- humus - 1 part.
Ten liters of finished soil is mixed with nitrophoska (1.5 tablespoons) and wood ash (2 tablespoons).
The cups are filled with finished moist soil, after which one seed is placed upside down in a spout. Planting material is sprinkled on top of a small layer of soil, moistened with water from a spray bottle and covered with a film on top.
Crops are placed in a warm place with air temperature from +22 to +28 degrees.
When shoots appear, transplanting tanks are placed on a well-lit place where there is no direct sunlight. The air temperature for seedlings during the day should be within +22 degrees, and at night - about +16 degrees. To young plants do not stretch, they must be provided with additional lighting. For this you can use fluorescent lamps.
When caring for seedlings it needs to be watered regularly. Watering should be abundant. Water the shoots should be about once a week so that the soil in cups it was moistened completely. Excess water from pallets must be drained.
After the two true leaves appear on the seedlings, they are fed with nitrophoska. A teaspoon of fertilizer is pre-diluted in one liter of water.
Two days before planting cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse, it is fed with a mixture of mineral fertilizers. For its preparation in ten liters of water dissolve:
Ten liters of nutrient solution is used to feed two square meters of soil.
If cucumbers were planted in boxes, then when they appear on these two true leaf, the plants are planted in separate pots. Before picking, the ground in which the seedlings grow is well spilled. With the help of a special spatula or fork each plant comes from the soil. This should be done carefully not to shake off the ground. The seedling is placed in a container filled with soil, its roots are sprinkled with earth and watered. Plant picking delays harvest for about a week.
Before planting seedlings in a greenhouse or greenhouse, it is recommended to treat the plants with a solution of Epin or Immunocytophyte.
Planting cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse
When the soil in the greenhouse or greenhouse warms up, the plants can be planted on the beds. The soil for planting cucumbers should be prepared in advance. The holes are dug to the depth of seedlings or peat cups and poured with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
The distance between plants depends on the variety of cucumbers:
It is recommended to plant cucumbers in a checkerboard pattern. In this case, each plant will receive enough light for growth and development.
Before planting in a greenhouse, seedlings are watered, and plastic cups are cut on one side. After that, the plant gently gets out of the cup, placed in the hole, powdered with a nutrient mixture and watered.
If the seedlings were grown in peat pots, then they first need to remove the bottom and slightly tore from above. In the hole the plant is placed together with a pot.
On top of the soil around the planted and watered plants sprinkled with dry soil that will retain moisture.
If the seedlings at home did not have enough light, and she stretched out, then the seedlings should be buried in the holes to the cotyledons. Such plants do not water after planting. In blooming seedlings buds and flowers are cut off.
For about five to seven days, the cucumbers planted in the greenhouse will adapt, after which they can be tied up to the trellis and the bushes formed.
Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse
The first time after planting in the soil it is necessary to shade the plants from the sun and often water it. In the afternoon, in warm weather, greenhouses and greenhouses open and ventilate. In cold weather and at night they should be closed.
Before flowering, cucumbers are watered once every five to seven days. From three to six liters of water is poured into each square meter of soil. During flowering and budding frequency and abundance of irrigation increases. A square meter of soil is watered with six to twelve liters of water every two to three days. Watering is recommended in the evening or early in the morning.
Watering cucumbers should be at the root, so that water does not fall on the leaves. After watering, the soil must be carefully and not very deeply loosened, otherwise you can damage the surface root system of plants.
Water cucumbers should be so that the soil was wet, but not wet. Excess moisture in the soil can lead to the defeat of plants fungal diseases. However, if the cucumbers do not have enough moisture, the fruits will grow bitter.
For a season, plants should be fed six to eight times. To do this, you can use a solution of mullein or bird droppings. The first time the plants are fed during flowering, and then once every two weeks. The nutrient solution is applied only in a moist soil and so that it does not fall on the leaves.
As soon as the antennae appear on the bushes, they are tied up with ropes or supports prepared in advance. As plants grow in the first four sinuses, lower leaves are removed. This is done so that the landings are not too thick.
If self-pollinated hybrids are grown in the greenhouse, the side shoots are not pinned. The bushes themselves are formed into one, two or three stalks.
Knowing all the rules for planting seeds and caring for cucumbers in a greenhouse, you can grow a good harvest of vegetables on your land plot and make salads or harvesting for the winter.
Proper cultivation of cucumbers in the greenhouse
Cucumber is one of the most common crops of private gardening. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse at high yields allows the family to provide this vegetable for the whole year. Homemade polycarbonate greenhouses create ideal conditions for obtaining a permanent crop, independent of the vagaries of the weather and the machinations of a harsh winter. Even in temperate zones, it makes sense to create a greenhouse cucumber farm to produce early vegetables. Of course, creating even the most reliable protection is only a small part of the work. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse requires special care and care for the plants.
The layout of the landings of cucumbers.
Peculiarities of growing cucumbers
Cultivation of cucumbers in open and closed ground has many features. But there are secrets of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse.
Greenhouses made of polycarbonate, installed on a flat garden plot, make it possible to maintain the necessary microclimate and conditions for the full maintenance of plants. However, the cultivation of cucumbers provides for agrotechnical and preventive measures before planting, during the period of development and ripening, as well as after harvesting. The preparatory stage includes the selection of seeds of the optimal variety of cucumbers, the cultivation of seedlings, the preparation of fertile soil. Agrotechnology is based on such important works as planting, loosening the soil, airing, watering, feeding. Good harvest will not be, if you do not carry out effective control of diseases and pests. Plant care at all stages of development involves the provision of optimal conditions, artificial or natural pollination.
Greenhouse growing mode
The method of vertical cultivation of cucumbers.
Greenhouse technology of growing cucumbers is based on maintaining the required temperature. In this case, the temperature should correspond to the phase of plant development. The most important thing is to eliminate sudden temperature changes during the day at any time of the year. Within 3-4 days after planting, the temperature should be kept within 20-22 ° C, but gradually at night it can be reduced to 17-19 ° C. On average, the temperature in the greenhouse is maintained in the range of 16-27C. With greater warming, the foliage begins to grow strongly, and at lower temperatures, the overall growth of the plant slows down.
An important factor is the temperature of the soil. When the soil temperature drops to 12-14 ° C, physiological dryness of the plant may occur. Then the roots of cucumbers lose their ability to take moisture from the soil. Under these conditions, watering becomes useless. Even with good soil moisture, the plant suffers a large deficit of moisture. Avoid this will help watering water heated by sunlight.
Cucumbers can be attributed to the moisture-loving plants. For their normal development, high air humidity (up to 95%) and normal soil moisture (50-60%) are necessary. The highest air humidity must be maintained during the first true leaflet appearance period (90-95%), after which the humidity can be lowered, but not lower than 78-84%. To maintain this level of moisture in the summer, a sprinkling method has effectively established itself. The water consumption is about 4.5-6 l / sq.m.
Formation of cucumber in the greenhouse.
Tips for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse begin with proper soil preparation. Hothouse soil should have high fertility, good permeability and neutrality. The best soil is considered to be a mixture of turf layer with fresh humus. The following soil composition is recommended: peat (50%), humus (30%) and natural field soil (20%). Positive properties when mixed in equal proportions of the soil give sawdust coniferous trees.
Soil preparation is as follows: the vegetation is removed, the earth is dug to a depth of 18-24 cm, the soil is treated with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate (6-8%). After 25-30 days, mineral fertilizers are applied: potassium sulfate - 1.9-2.1 kg, superphosphate - 2.8-3.2 kg, ammonium nitrate - 400 g per 1 cubic meter of land.
The bed in the greenhouse of the manure type is correctly formed in the following order. A pit is dug for a bed of 35-42 cm in depth. Then fresh manure is laid and the soil is filled to a thickness of 14-20 cm. The soil is disinfected before planting. To do this, apply a solution of bleach (20 g of lime to 6 liters of water) and hot water with potassium permanganate (6 g potassium permanganate to 15 liters of water).
Selection of cucumber varieties
Cucumbers for greenhouses currently have a huge selection of varieties. You can choose early cucumbers, late-ripening varieties with long-term fruiting, specially designed for cold regions, do not require artificial pollination, etc. The most popular early hybrid varieties that develop very quickly in greenhouse conditions. One of the best recognized the following F1 series cucumbers:
Acceptable dose of fertilizer for feeding cucumber.
- Nezhinsky local
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Scheme fertilizer beds for growing cucumbers.
Planting cucumbers in greenhouses is done by the only method - by planting seedlings that have been previously germinated and hardened. You can grow it in pots with a volume of at least 500 ml or in special containers. Early cucumber seedlings for greenhouses germinate well at optimum temperature and good light. Seeds quickly germinate using 400 or 600 watt sodium lamps. In this case, the intensity of illumination greatly influences the speed and quality of the development of the shoot.
Temperature control also plays a vital role. When sowing seeds before the appearance of the first shoots, the air temperature is maintained at between 26-28 ° C, the soil - 23-25 ° C. After the sprout appears, the air temperature gradually decreases to 20–22 ° C, and one day before planting, the seedlings are hardened at an air temperature of 16–18 ° C and the soil is 20–22 ° C.
Late-ripening variety Hercules and mid-season Dynamite are distinguished by high yields. Under low light conditions, Buyan, Murashka, Twiksi, and Halley develop perfectly. For the earliest time of planting, long hybrid varieties that do not require pollination are suitable: Malachite, Stella, Biryusa, Lada.
Planting cucumbers in the greenhouse
The scheme of growing cucumbers.
For planting, seedlings with 3-5 true leaves are used, the average germ age is 24-26 days. The term of planting cucumbers depends on the type of greenhouse. In greenhouses without heating with a film coating, transplanting is done in early spring, as soon as the soil under the film warms up. This usually happens in late April - early May. In greenhouses with biological heating - April 2-8. Cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse with heating can be planted at any time, more often in early February.
Landing is carried out in rows. The optimum distance between rows on one bed is 45-55 cm, and between tapes - 75-85 cm. The seedling is planted in increments of at least 22 cm. Organic or mineral fertilizer is applied to each well and water is poured. Peat pots with seedlings are immersed in the wells and completely filled with soil. Then the ridges are abundantly watered and the seedlings are mulched. Seedlings grown not in peat pots should be removed from the pot and planted directly in the hole.
Rules for the care of cucumbers
Cucumbers are very sensitive and respond with gratitude to care and care. The main care measures are loosening the soil, airing the greenhouse, watering and feeding plants.Shallow loosening of the land around each bush is carried out periodically to ensure the air permeability of the soil, prevent root rot and weed germination.
To access the air, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse, and this procedure should be carried out regularly, taking into account the outside air temperature.
In warm weather, greenhouse blocks rise and allow air to circulate freely inside the greenhouse.
For watering it is necessary to use warm water. In winter, it is recommended to water the plants on a sunny day in the morning. With the onset of heat, watering is carried out 2 times a week, and on sunny days - every other day.
Watering is the most important procedure for the care of a plant. The best effect is achieved with irrigation by sprinkling. In warm summer weather, watering should be daily with a water volume of about 4-6 l / sq. In this case, the ideal is the option when the water temperature corresponds to the air temperature in the greenhouse. In cloudy weather, watering is carried out as needed, which is determined visually. The optimal time for watering is from 10 am to 11 am in the morning, and from 15 to 16 pm after lunch.
For a good harvest, it is necessary to feed cucumbers. Especially active plant consumes nutrients from the soil within 14-15 days after planting. During this period, it is important to make a nitrogen feed. The following dressing is carried out before the start of flowering - the phosphor component is introduced. During the period of active fruiting, it is necessary to support the culture by applying nitrogen-potassium fertilizers to the soil.
It is best to feed in the evening. Organic feed in the form of an aqueous solution of bird droppings (1:16), manure (1: 4), and mullein (1: 7) shows good results. It is recommended to add mineral ingredients to such formulations. For example, a quality solution is obtained when preparing a solution of mullein with the addition of urea (40 g per 1 liter of solution).
Greenhouse protection cannot by itself isolate the plant from diseases and pests. In this regard, you should be prepared to deal with the following troubles:
Fighting diseases and pests of cucumbers can be prepared by means that are sold in specialized stores. Such compositions are widely used: Impact, Kvadris, Zolon, Mitak, Talstar, Konfidor.
Design features of the winter greenhouse
Winter garden should provide favorable conditions for plants. The base of the greenhouse, its foundation is made of stone.
Inside, the foundation is insulated with sawdust of deciduous or coniferous trees, straw. It is necessary to close up the joints of the structure, to exclude drafts.
It is advisable to disinfect the greenhouse and thermally sterilize the soil. To ensure a sufficiently high temperature, the facilities are equipped with a heating system.
In small greenhouses, you can put a stove-stove. Greenhouses of a larger area are heated with electric, solid fuel or gas boilers.
Carry out around the perimeter of the heating pipe, if necessary, install radiators.Since the cucumber is a moisture-loving plant, drip irrigation will deliver sufficient moisture to the root system of the plant. Cucumber - light-loving culture, so be sure to organize the backlight.
For the cultivation of cucumbers special materials and tools are not required. It is important to stock up claydite for drainage, manure, mineral fertilizers.
Seedling boxes or peat pots are needed to grow seedlings. In winter, it is important to keep warm in the root system of plants, for this use mulch.
In greenhouses for mulching use needles, tree bark, reed. For garter plants, it is useful to stock up with synthetic twine and special clamps.
Seedlings in winter greenhouses for winter-spring crop rotation are planted until the end of December.
- to obtain seedlings, seeds are kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, disinfecting them from fungal diseases,
- and to activate germination, they are soaked in a solution of organic or mineral fertilizers,
- germinating seeds conveniently in seedboxes or peat pots. They are filled with wet, steamed boiling water sawdust. Fertilizers do not contribute to sawdust,
- seedlings are transplanted into the ground when the plant has 5 or more true leaves,
- after the plants take root, they are tied up,
- when female and male flowers appear, pollinated varieties must be pollinated by hand,
- harvesting is carried out in two days, not allowing the fruit to grow over.
In greenhouses, cucumber is grown on soil enriched with organic and mineral fertilizers. During the development of new greenhouses make manure, superphosphate and potassium sulphate.
Allow this substrate to stand for about two weeks. Before planting seedlings, while loosening the soil, ammonium nitrate is added. Every year they hold events to improve the properties of the soil.
Bring in chopped straw, peat, sawdust. Additionally, nitrogen fertilizers are applied to replenish nitrogen, which is absorbed by microorganisms living in the soil.
Care of seedlings is as follows:
- fertilizing with mineral fertilizers,
- fertilizing with organic fertilizers,
- It is important to alternate fertilization. One type of fertilizer should be applied, and after 10 days another one should be followed constantly.
- maintaining temperature, humidity, lighting,
- plant garter,
- formation of lashes,
- removing lashes that otplodonosili and old leaves.
It is interesting to know that puncturing the soil with forks around the root system of plants deliver oxygen to the roots, accelerating growth and fruiting.
Crop yield in the greenhouse
Fruit cucumbers unevenly. Abundant yields are obtained from the main stem.
Then side shoots are formed, yields are somewhat reduced. To reduce the duration of this non-productive period, it is enough to lower the temperature at night to 15 degrees.
The collection of fruits is carried out at intervals of 2-3 days. It should not be allowed to ripen fruits, it delays the ripening of other fruits.
Compliance with agrotechnical methods for growing cucumbers allows you to get a crop in heated greenhouses up to 25 kilograms from 1 square meter.
By ensuring the right approach to the organization of conditions in the greenhouse, a good choice of seeds and the use of agrotechnical techniques will ensure high yields of culture. Under such conditions, there is no need for pesticides.
Cucumbers will have a marketable appearance, they will not deteriorate quickly. In winter, such products in the markets are rare. This will increase the demand for products, make a profit.
How to grow cucumbers in the winter on the windowsill, see the advice of an experienced gardener in the following video: