Live weight of farm animals, in particular cattle (cattle) is one of the most important indicators taken into account in breeding work.
Live weight of livestock is an important indicator for assessing meat and dairy productivity. Meat-type animals are distinguished by relatively early attainment of maximum mass, and dairy-type animals by relatively long preservation of its optimum value. In order to make better use of biological growth reserves, it is necessary to know the patterns of age-related changes in animal mass and the rate of the genotype response to specific changes in living conditions.
The determination of live weight of animals by measurement is based on the fact that body weight is proportional to its volume. Special measuring tape or stick is the tools necessary for measuring, depending on the method of determining the live weight of the animal.
When determining the weight of cattle, measure the slanting length of the body (from the extreme anterior point of the protrusion of the humerus to the posterior protrusion of the ischial tuberosity) and the chest girth behind the shoulder blades. On the basis of the obtained measurement values, according to a special table, the live weight of the cows is found (see the table for measuring the weight of cattle by measurements).
Live weight is estimated in all groups of animals: young animals, cows, and bull producers.
Determining the weight (live weight) of animals (livestock) by measuring (by measurements) gives an error in the range of 20-30 kg compared with weighing on scales, and sometimes significantly less.
The accuracy of determining the live weight of livestock largely depends on the accuracy of taking measurements. When looking at the animal from the side, the limbs should close each arc. The head should be horizontal with respect to the body and not pubescent or extremely elevated.
Indicators of live weight of cattle
The weight of cattle varies considerably, based on breed characteristics. Find out how much a cow weighs on average, based on the standard values of a particular breed.
There are three main groups:
Animals of meat breeds are distinguished by intensive weight gain and a large maximum weight. In dairy cattle, live weight increases more slowly, but is highly stable.
The weight of a newborn calf is 7-9% by weight of the mother, which corresponds to 35-45 kg, calves of dairy breeds are smaller, their weight starts from 20 kg. The average daily increment of newborn calves is 700 g (for dairy-meat) and 600 g (for dairy breeds).
Monthly calves can weigh up to 60 kg, depending on the intensity of fattening. By the age of one year old bullheads can reach a mass of 250-400 kg. Cows reach 500-600 kg, live weight of manufacturing bulls is 700-1100 kg. The largest bull in the world has reached a mass of more than 1900 kg. The largest wild bulls in the world live in Vietnam and China. Their averages are over 1500 kg. The smallest representatives of non-domestic cattle are musk oxen. The weight of male musk oxen ranges from 250 to 670 kg.
Determination of weight by measurements
Knowledge of the body weight of an individual is required when selling it, calculating the measure of feed, and prescribing medications. In large livestock farms, special weighing devices are used, small agricultural enterprises and private owners must find other ways to calculate the weight of cattle.
You can find out how much a cow weighs in different ways. The most common and accurate methods are weight determination using measurements of special tables and calculation using the Trukhanovsky formula.
The determination of weight by measurement is called the Kluver-Strauch method. It is based on the proportionality of this value to the volume of the body.
You can find out how much a bull weighs by arming yourself with a tape measure and several helpers. Measurements are carried out with the correct position of the animal (parallel setting of the limbs and the horizontal line of the head and body) using a special measuring tape or stick.
To calculate this value, measure:
- Chest for shoulder blades,
- The length of the trunk is the distance from the extreme anterior point of the protrusion of the humerus to the protrusion of the sciatic mound.
Based on these indicators, according to special tables (initially, the Foreground table) determine the massiveness of the individual.
Separate tables have been developed for adults and young animals of different breeds, which must be considered to reduce the error. This method gives an inaccuracy in the range of 20-30 kg, which varies based on the correctness of the measurement and the physiological characteristics of the animal itself.
Determining the weight of a bull without weights and in the absence of special tables can be made using the formula. To calculate it, it is necessary to establish the value of the straight body length (along the spine from the shoulder blades to the sacrum) and the chest girth behind the shoulder blades.
The obtained values are multiplied by each other, the result is reduced by 100. To obtain a more accurate value of body weight, the value is adjusted, based on the fatness of the cattle:
- When the category is above average, the calculated value is increased by 5-10%,
- With fatness below average or average, the resulting figure is reduced by 5-10%.
When calculating live weight, based on the breed of cattle, a correction factor of 2 is used (for dairy breeds and 2.5 for meat breeds).
In addition, the average weight of a cow can be assumed based on her age and breed.
Measures of fatness of young animals and adults
When realizing livestock, in addition to body weight, the fatness of the animal is taken into account. Evaluation of the fatness of dairy cows is made by the development of muscle tissue and the size of the fat layer by probing. In cattle fat deposition occurs from the back of the body to the head.
There are separate categories of fatness for cows and young.
Categories of fatness of cows:
- Higher - animals have a high muscle mass, rounded body lines with barely prominent shoulder blades and a smooth line of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, sciatic tubercles and maclacs, clear fat deposits are defined up to 2 last ribs,
- Medium - differs in satisfactory development of muscles, slightly angular contours of the body with prominent scapulae, spinous processes of the vertebrae, sciatic tubercles and maclacs, the fatty layer is developed only at the root of the tail and on the sciatic tubercles,
- Below the average, it is characterized by a weak development of the musculature of cows, an angular body shape with tightened hips and pronounced projections of the bones of the skeleton, the fat layer is not detectable.
Young cattle, which include animals of both sexes from the age of 3 months to 3 years, are characterized by the following measures of nutrition:
- Higher - calves are distinguished by roundness of forms, developed muscles, a smoothed spine line, fat is felt in the area of the tail and sciatic tubercles, in neutered animals - in the scrotum,
- Medium - characterized by a satisfactory development of muscles, less rounded forms, noticeable processes of the vertebrae of the lumbar and spinal spine,
- Fat can be determined in the area of the tail,
- Below average, it is manifested by weak development of muscles, angularity of body lines, strong protrusion of processes of vertebrae, shoulder blades, maklaks and sciatic tubercles.
The fatness of animals affects their value in the implementation, as it determines the yield of meat.
Thus, the live weight of the animal is a fundamental indicator for breeding, the value of which depends on the net yield of meat. The mass of an adult or young stock can be determined using several techniques, without resorting to weighing.
How can you know the weight of cattle without scales by measurements
In the absence of a special device, the cattle weight determination table will be an indispensable assistant. Weighing adults or calves is often difficult, but it is impossible to do without knowing the mass of animals.
These data are necessary when selling cattle, to study the development and fattening. The enterprising livestock breeders have learned how to do without weights and learn the mass by special formulas, using a measuring tape or measuring tape as a measuring tool.
Error in weightless mass determination and measurement rules
Measuring the weight of cattle by measuring shows not quite accurate results. Determination of body weight by the table or formulas gives an error of 20-30 kg, sometimes less - this is not a critical indicator, just remember this. If you use measurements to monitor the development of livestock, then a little inaccurate numbers will not hurt you at all.
In order for the error in measuring the mass of calves according to measurements to be minimal, it is important to learn how to take measurements correctly. It is not always easy, because animals do not like to stand still and wait for the farmer to make these same measurements. The procedure is complicated with age, because animals become larger.
To determine the weight of young cattle or adults, two values are needed: the girth of the sternum and the length of the body, measured by oblique.
To measure the girth of the sternum, you should hold a measuring tape behind the shoulder blades. The oblique length of the carcass is measured from the extreme point of the protrusion on the humerus and to the protrusion on the sciatic tubercle. It is important to learn how to correctly and quickly take measurements, because they are necessary for all methods for determining live weight of cattle without weights.
Methods for measuring the weight of livestock without weights and the formula for calculating the average weight
On many farms, to find out the weight of a bull, use simple calculations, rather than measuring instruments. This is due to the fact that a bull in 2-3 months can still fit on the scales, but it will be difficult to find such scales for adults. Yes, and drive the animal to the platform for weighing - not an easy task.
It was for this reason that the computational models were invented: the Trukhanovsky method, the Klever-Strauch table, and the Freuven table. For some breeds, there are separate formulas for calculating, since they are much larger than the standard dimensions that cattle reach. For example, black-and-white breed.
If you do not have a table of the ratio of body and mass parameters at hand, then you can calculate the weight using the regression equation: Y = 5.3x-X. In this formula, a small "x" will vary depending on the size of the chest. The exact value of "X" large for animals of different massiveness can be viewed in the table:
This table and formula will help you know how much cows and bull-calves weigh in adulthood. To calculate the mass of the newborn calf, there are other methods that do not require mathematical calculations.
Weight of cattle depends on what?
The weight of the animal depends on many factors. For example, on the state of his psyche. A cow that has been shaking the truck all day long from fear and off-road will weigh by the end of its journey 15–18 percent lessthan weighed, serenely pinching grass in the meadow. The live weight of a cow coming out of its bedchamber in the morning will be less than that of its own, but densely baked with fresh greens during the day.
Of course, in the process of growth from calf to adult, body weight changes. And in the individual in the prime of muscle mass, and hence the weight will be much more than the old, who gave most of the resources of his body cattle.
Based on these figures, you can judge the health of cattle. If the weight of the individual is significant different from the normThis may indicate non-compliance with the norms of feeding or disease of the animal.If you buy live cattle, you will surely come in handy with the method of determining the live weight of an animal without weights according to the method proposed in the article.
Cattle breeders subdivide cattle breeds in two main areas: dairy and meat.
Dairy focused on high milk yield and milk quality. Milk of such breeds has more dry matter, high fat content and nutritional value, but dairy weight livestock is much smaller than those raised to produce more muscle mass (beef).
Meat breeds Cows are distinguished by the best indicators in quantity and quality of meat products. But also give milk. There are mixed breeds of meat and dairy with average weight and production of meat and milk.
The live weight and the weight of the meat part of the animal have different meanings. Typically, these figures depend on the category of fatness of the animal and make up approximately 38 to 48% of the live weight of the cattle.
- How to find out the weight of a bull without weights
Methods for determining the mass of the animal (cattle cattle) without weights
In the figure we see two measured parameters.
- The length of the back from the shoulder blades to the sacrum.
- Chest for shoulder blades
Knowing these two values, we can calculate how much a cow weighs on average using the following Trukhanov formula:
Applying this method it is necessary to make an adjustment to the category of the animal (according to the degree of fatness). For body weight above the average norm, it is necessary to add from 5 to 10 percent of the obtained value to the calculations made. If the animal is bad, subtract 5–10% of the amount.
The following method is also based on measuring only two parameters of animal carcass
- Body length along oblique line from shoulder to sciatic tuberosity
- Chest for shoulder blades
To calculate the mass of the obtained values, the following table for determining the weight of cattle
How much does a calf weigh? The table below will help determine calf weight
We take the same measurements and compare them with the values in the weight measurement table.
Note that the weight is determined inaccurately, but only approximately. But this is an invaluable help to the breeder, the seller and the buyer, who does not know how to find out the weight without weights, if there are no accurate measuring devices and you need to urgently determine the weight of the animal.
Using the tables is quite simple: find the value obtained in the measurement of chest girth in the left column, and above the length of the body, which we measured along an oblique line from the shoulder to the sciatic hill. And at the intersection of these two parameters will be target mass of our animal. Practice, take a few measurements and you will succeed.
It is also easy to do calculations using the easy and understandable formulas given here.
How else can you find weight without weights? There are several other methods for measuring the body weight of cattle.
For the next method you need measure a cow also in two places: chest girth and belly (should be measured in the place that is visually larger). The final value can be calculated using the following table:
This table is valid. to measure any breeds Cattle, although it was created for a specific breed, as indicated in the description.
In the following method, calculations are made using the equationwhere x is the value obtained by accurate measurement. It is necessary to measure the chest girth of a cow as accurately as possible by placing the measuring tape under the breast of the animal. Be careful, the final result depends on the measurement accuracy. When measurements are made and the figure is obtained, apply it in the following regression equation:
Where x = girth under the breast of a cow, obtained by measuring, and y will be equal to the mass of the animal. It should be noted that
- The first equation is used when x = 170– 180 cm
- Second, if x is from 181 to 191 cm
- And the third with a value of x more than 191 cm
The information given in this article will be useful to breeders and everyone who deals with the maintenance, purchase or transportation of livestock. With some skill, you will know exactly how much a cow weighs and that you are not buying a cat in a bag.
Frequency of weighing
The most accurate method for determining body weight is weighing. Without fail, it must be carried out twice within one year.
- In early spring, before the beginning of the pasture season.
- Late autumn - before putting the animal into a stall.
Weighing is carried out in the morning, before the pasture on the pasture. It is combined with the necessary zootechnical measures, vaccination, blood sampling. It is organized as follows.
- Establish scales in the direction of movement of animals.
- They drive the cattle through them, conducting the necessary seasonal procedures with it.
It is very important to control the weight of growing calves. The frequency of monitoring the weight of young animals is shown in the table.
Periodicity, control method, target
Six hours after birth.
Once. Accurately can only be measured by weights.
Up to two months.
Once every ten days. Weight can be determined by alternative weighting methods. So they control the correctness of development, the absence of deviations, the presence of diseases.
From two months to six months.
Once a month. It is possible to control linear measurements.
It is carried out for the purpose of reconciliation with standard indicators characteristic of this breed.
Before insemination (approximately 14 months).
You can also carry out linear measurements. The goal is to check against the benchmarks.
Group formation time.
Table number 1. Frequency of weighing calves.
How to weigh?
The same methods as cows and calves. The only difference is the large mass and abrupt nature of the bull, which complicates the measurement procedure.
The bull is heavier than a cow almost one and a half times. For example, a Holstein cow can weigh 500 kg, and a bull a ton. And this is not the limit. In Ukraine, the seeding bull nicknamed Repp weighed one and a half tons.
How to find out the weight without weighing?
Not every private household has scales. When maintaining, for example, one unit, they are not necessary to buy. You can, of course, agree and take advantage of those that are installed on the nearest farm. But if we follow the weighing schedule, then it will have to be done too often. Therefore, it is better to use alternative methods for converting linear to weight indicators.
According to Trukhanovsky
In this case, use the formula. It is applicable when determining the weight of an adult bull. To calculate, you need to clarify two parameters.
- Chest circumference. The measurement location is very close to the bull's front legs. You can measure it with a special tape measure or centimeter.
- Straight torso length. That is, find out the distance from the beginning of the neck to the beginning of the tail (see Figure 1). An ordinary stick is suitable for measuring. On it, make a mark in the right places, and then measure the distance between them.
How to conduct measurements on the animal for the formula Trukhanovsky
The weight is calculated according to the formula:
- M is the measured mass in kg
- K - correction factor. Its value is determined by the breed of the animal being measured:
- for meat - K = 2.5,
- for dairy - K = 2,
- A - measured chest circumference (cm),
- B is the measured straight length (cm).
To obtain a more accurate value, it is necessary to take into account the fat level of the bull.
- At high, 5 or 10% is added to the resulting weight.
- At low - 5% or 10% is subtracted from the received weight.
It is also suitable for finding out the weight of an adult bull. According to this method, two measurements are made similarly. The first is the same. But the second - the other. It is called - oblique length. How it is measured is shown in Figure 2.
Then, the results should be compared with the values specified in the table below.
In this method, use one parameter - the chest circumference.And then the following formulas are used.
Have1 = 5.3 * X - 507 - used when X = 170 ÷ 180 (cm).
Have2 = 5.3 * X - 486 - used when X = 181 ÷ 191 (cm).
Have3 = 5.3 * X - 465 - used when X ≥ 192 (cm),
Have1-2-3 - the determined value, that is, weight (kg),
X - circumference of the breast (cm).
We considered three universal methods for converting linear measurements of adult cattle into their weights. These methods are suitable for any breeds.
How to determine the weight of the bull on the circumference of the belly
With this method, two parameters are also needed.
- Chest circumference, measured as usual - as close as possible to the front legs.
- The circumference of the belly, measured in the widest place.
The obtained data is compared with a special table (they can be found on the Internet).
How to use a special tape
To use it, you must first purchase it, and it is not always easy to do. Then you can take the usual centimeter, make the necessary measurements on the animal, and then work with the table. But the tape, of course, more convenient.
With its help, one measurement is performed - the chest circumference (closer to the front legs). By measuring, the tape is not necessary to regret. It is strongly tightened, so that, the available hairs are applied. At the same time the animal should stand calmly, the head is not lowered. As a result, the required weight of the animal will be written on the tape above the obtained measurement value. Very fast.
Unfortunately, all the proposed methods do not differ perfect accuracy. The error can be 20-30 kg. For accurate results, anyway, we need scales.
Live weight and nutritional measures
Live weight of farm animals is one of the most important indicators taken into account by breeders. It determines the amount of meat or milk production.
In order to make better use of biological growth reserves, it is necessary to know the patterns of age-related changes in animal mass and the rate of the genotype response to specific changes in living conditions.
When selling cattle in live weight, the price is affected not only by the weight itself, but also by the measure of the fatness of the animal. The fatness of cattle is determined during the inspection by probing the muscle tissue and areas of fat deposition.
In cattle, fat is deposited, first of all, on the back of the body: near the tail, on the ischial tubercles, sacrum, then on the lower back, maklakah, ribs. Lastly, livestock fat is deposited on the neck and shoulder blades. Did you know?If all humanity is put on one side of the scale, and all cows and bulls are beaten off to the second, the total weight of the “horned” will triple the weight of the people.For acceptance-delivery of animals for slaughter, their fatness is obliged to comply with existing standards.
Individuals cattle divided into four age groups:
- adult cattle (bulls, cows, heifers from 3 years old and first-calf cows with receiving weight below 350 kg),
- cow heifers less than three years old (with two permanent incisors) with receiving weight over 350 kg,
- juveniles from three months to three years (bullheads, castrates, heifers):
- young animals (from 14 days to three months).
Learn more about such breeds of cows as “Highland”, “Red Steppe”, “Ayrshirskaya”, “Jersey”, “Brown Latvian”, “Yaroslavskaya”, “Aberdeen-Anguskaya”, “Kalmyk”, “Kakhakhskaya White-headed”, “Kholmogorskaya” "," Simmental "," Golshtinsky "," Shorthorn ".
Age groups, as far as they are, are divided into two categories.
The first category of adult cattle: satisfactory muscular development, angularity of the trunk, weak scapula, slight hip femininity, spinous processes of the vertebrae and maklaki softly protrude, palpated subcutaneous fat deposits at the base of the tail and on the sciatic mounds, oxen have a slightly fatty soft scrotum.
Second category of adult cattle: less satisfactory muscle development, angularity of the trunk, noticeable discharge of the shoulder blades, thigh plane, tightness and protrusion of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, maklakov and sciatic tubercles, small subcutaneous fat deposits on the sciatic tubercles and lower back are possible, oxen have a lean fatty scrotum. The first category of bulls: The rounded shape of the body, well-developed muscles, wide back, lower back and back, there is no selection of the bones of the skeleton.
The second category of bulls: a small angular shape of the body, mediocre development of muscles, narrow back, chest, lower back and back, a small fit of the hips and shoulder blades.
The first category of first-calf cows: The rounded shape of the body, well-developed muscles, a small selection of the spinous vertebrae, sciatic tubercles and maklakov, palpated fat deposits at the base of the tail.
Second category of cows: a small roundness of the torso forms, mediocre development of the muscles, protruding spinous processes of the vertebrae, sciatic tubercles, maklaki, not palpated body fat. Juveniles are divided into four classes:
- selective - more than 450 kg,
- the first is 400–450 kg,
- the second is 350–400 kg,
- the third is 300–350 kg.
The youngsters of choice, first and second classes fall into the first category, and the young of the third class has its two categories.
First category - the rounded shape of the body, well-developed musculature, the spinous processes of the vertebrae, the sciatic tubercles and maklaki stand out a little, palpated fat deposits in the tail.
Second category - a small roundness of the form of the body, mediocre development of muscles, withers, spinous processes of the vertebrae, sciatic tubercles, maklaki stand out, not palpated fat deposits.
The first category of young cattle (milkmen) - the muscles are acceptable, the spinous processes of the vertebrae do not protrude, the hair is smooth, the mucous membranes of the eyelids are white, the gums are white or with a light pinkish tinge, the lips, the palate is white or yellowish, the live weight is not less 30 kg. The second category of young cattle (fed) - the muscles are less satisfactory developed, the spinous processes of the vertebrae slightly protrude, the mucous membranes of the eyelids, lips, gums, palate have a reddish tinge.
Important!Cattle that do not meet the requirements of the second category or lower than average fatness are considered to be lean.Depending on the weight of the animal, the thickness of the fat and the age of the pigs are divided into five categories of fatness.
First category - young pigs are bacon in the age group up to 8 months, weighing 80–105 kg, fed in specialized farms (farms) on rations that ensure the release of high-quality bacon pork.
Color is white, skin without pigment spots. Torso without interception behind the shoulder blades, the size from the occipital crest to the root of the tail is not less than 100 cm. Skin without tumors, hematomas, injuries affecting the subcutaneous tissue. The thickness of the lard over the spinous processes of the 6-7 th thoracic vertebrae is 1.5–3.5 cm.
Second category - young meat pigs (besides sows), weighing 60–150 kg with lard thickness 1.5–4 cm, as well as gilts weighing 20–60 kg with lard thickness not less than one centimeter.
Third category - fat pigs, including sows and hogs, age and weight are not limited, fat thickness is 4.4 cm or more. Fourth category - boars weighing more than 150 kg and sows with a fat thickness of 1.5–4 cm.
Fifth category - Milk pigs weighing 4–8 kg. The skin is white or slightly pink, without tumors, rashes, hematomas, wounds, bites. Spinous processes of the spinal vertebrae and ribs do not stick out.
Important!For the first category, males should be neutered no later than 2 months of age, for the second, third and fourth categories - no later than 4 months of age. Pigs that meet the requirements of the first category, but that have tumors on the skin, bruises, traumatic injuries affecting the subcutaneous tissue, belong to the second category.
Depending on age, horses are divided into 3 groups: adults - from three years and more, young animals - from one to three years, foals - up to one year with a live weight of at least 120 kg.
Depending on the fatness, mature horses and young animals are divided into the first and second categories, and foals only into the first.
Adult horses first category - the muscles are well developed, the body forms are round, the chest, shoulder blades, loins, croup and thighs are perfectly fulfilled, the spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae do not protrude, the ribs are subtle and poorly palpable, fat deposits are perfectly palpated along the crest of the neck and at the root of the tail. Second category - the muscles are developed mediocrely, the body forms are slightly angular, the chest, shoulder blades, back, croup and hips are moderately fulfilled, the spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae can slightly protrude, the ribs are discernible, palpation with the fingers does not trap, small fat deposits are palpated.
You will probably be interested to learn about such breeds of horses as Vladimir heavy-duty, Frisian, Arabian, Akhal-Teke, Appaloosa, Orlov trotter, and Tinker.
Youngsters of the first category - the muscles are well developed, the trunk forms are rounded, the spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae do not protrude, the sciatic tubercles and maklaks are slightly visible, the subcutaneous fat deposits are palpated on the neck in the form of an elastic crest.
Second category - the muscles are developed satisfactorily, angular body shape, spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae, shoulder-shoulder joints, maklaki and sciatic protuberances stick out slightly, the ribs are noticeable, however, palpation with the fingers is not captured, fat deposits on the crest of the neck and on the body are small.
Colts first category - muscles are formed perfectly or satisfactorily, the body shape is rounded or slightly angular, shoulder-shoulder joints, scapula, spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae, maklaki and sciatic tubercles can slightly protrude, ribs slightly noticeable, on the crest of the neck small fat deposits are possible.
How to determine weight without weights
The calculation of the weight of animals using measurements is based on the fact that it is proportional to its volume. A special measuring tape or stick is the tools necessary for measuring, depending on the method of determining the body weight of the animal.
Determining how much an average cow weighs for meat can be done in several ways.
Measurement of livestock to determine the weight is carried out on such parameters:
- the girth of the animal's chest is behind the shoulder blades, around the chest along the line that runs vertically from the end of the shoulder blade,
- oblique trunk length - measured from the front edge of the shoulder-shoulder joint to the posterior protrusion of the ischial tubercles.
For these measurements in the table you can find the answer to the question of how to find out the weight of cattle without weights.
Table for determining the approximate live weight of the calf
Live weight is estimated in all groups of animals: young animals, cows, and bull producers.
Did you know?The heaviest cow in the world - Mount Katahdin, a Holstein-Durham hybrid - reached a weight of 2,270 kg (1906–10). According to the Guinness Book of Records, she was at the withers 1.88 m and 3.96 m in girth.
Determination of live weight of cattle using the measurement table gives an error in the range of 20-30 kg compared with weighing on the scales, and sometimes significantly less.
Please note that the weight of cattle animals varies with age not always smoothly and largely depends on the feeding conditions, and climatic and weather phenomena, various diseases and other factors have a great influence.
All this leads to the fact that in cattle the average daily mass fluctuations with normal content can sometimes reach 30–40 kg, or 5–7%. In order to know exactly how much a live cow weighs on average, it is necessary to adhere to the correctness of taking parameters. When looking at the animal from the side, the limbs should cover each other. The head should be in a horizontal position in relation to the body and not be lowered or strongly raised up.
Know the weight of the pig is necessary to calculate the amount of feed given.
A full and adequate diet is the main secret of success in growing pigs, so it will be useful to calculate in advance the amount of feed. Piglets increase is an important indicator that every farmer should control.
In this case, growth retardation can be corrected with suitable nutrition and the introduction of additional vitamins and feed into the diet. When putting a pig in for meat, it is advisable to use electronic equipment, but for safety, you can at least approximately estimate it at home.
For reliable information it is necessary to measure the animal. When calculating the need two indicators: the length of the body and chest volume, measured under the shoulder blades. For convenience, you can use the tailoring tape. These pig weight tables vary in size with an accuracy of from 4 to 11%. Important!Determination of live weight in size as accurately as possible only when measured before feeding the animal. The pig should stand straight, with its head elevated.
The following table shows how to find out the weight of a pig without using scales by measurements.
These measurements are combined and at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical values find the approximate mass of the animal.
Determination using coefficients
This method can be called the most approximate, but it is suitable if you do not have the above table at hand. The size of the pig in this case is taken in the same way as in the above table.
The calculation algorithm is extremely simple. Measurement data multiply with each other (dimensions in centimeters). Offhand determine the size of the fatness of the animal. The factors below define three stages:
- Sufficiently thin pig k = 162.
- Average fatness is k = 156.
- Normal and good fat content k = 142.
The result of multiplying the volume of the pig divided by the appropriate case of the coefficient.
Did you know?Pork - the most widespread meat in the world, and is one of the largest world productions.Equally important is another factor - the age of the animal. The breed will also influence this factor, it’s no secret that at the same age the Vietnamese and white pigs will be in completely different weight categories.
Accurate orientations and weight-gaining tables simply do not exist, because the determining criterion will be a complete and rational nutrition, which it is possible to provide exclusively in farming conditions, and not for home use.
The question of how to determine the weight of a horse without weights is also very popular, and this can be done in several ways.
Special measuring tapes
Abroad, well-established production of special measuring tapes for three types of horses: draft horses, riding breeds and ponies. Using them to determine the weight of the animal is quite simple.
It is necessary to choose a measuring tape for a specific type of horse (there is a gradation in kilograms on them) and measure the breast volume where the cinch is located. The corresponding division will tell you the approximate weight of the horse.
Important!Knowledge of the average weight of a horse is necessary for a normal appearance, performance, the ability to participate in exhibitions, the ability to bear healthy foals. Sewing decimeter (according to measurements of the chest volume and length of the horse)
Take an ordinary "decimeter", which is used in the sewing business. You need to make two measurements: the length of the horse and the volume of its chest. After that use the formula: M (weight in kg) = V (breast volume in cm) × V (breast volume in cm) × L (length in cm).
This method is not suitable for foals, pregnant mares, very fat or too exhausted animals.
Matorina method This method is used for any type of horse. With it, you can easily calculate the weight of the horse. The formula is quite simple: Y = 6 × V - 620. Y is the weight of a horse in kg, and V is the chest girth in centimeters.
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Durst method For this method, special factors are used, which depend on the type of horse. The formula is as follows: P = V × K, where P is the horse's mass in kg, V is the chest girth in cm, and K is the design factor. For heavy horses, it is 3.5, for medium ones - 3.1, and for light ones - 2.7. Determining a horse's weight through its height By horse height is meant the distance from the ground to the highest point of the withers, which is determined by the plumb line and measured in centimeters. There are two ways to carry out such calculations.
According to the first method, multiply the data in cm after the measurement by a special factor.
For horses that are of a working type and have a light build, it is equal to:
- for the fat - 2.58,
- for the average - 2.33,
- for the skinny - 2,10.
For horses of working type with heavy addition, the coefficient is:
- for fat horses - 3.39,
- for the skinny - 3.06.
According to the second method, divide the measured data in centimeters by 4 and then multiply the result by a special factor.
Horses of working type (heavy addition):
Horses of working type (light build):
Useful tips and tricks
Approximate dimensions of a pig need to know for many manipulations: starting from determining the required portion, ending with the dosage of drugs. To provide accurate measurement is often not possible, because not all can acquire high-precision equipment.
That is why you can use the tips of our article and find the necessary value at least with a small margin of error.
The data required for the calculation is minimal, usually it is the length of the body and the girth under the shoulder blades. Depending on the coefficient of fatness of the pig there are special formulas for calculating.
You can use the approximate weight gain for different breeds of pigs, as well as calculate the dependence of age and size.
The data can vary quite significantly depending on the conditions of detention and feeding. It is known that in summer and spring pigs gain weight much better, therefore it is more profitable to take pigs in spring.
For this perfect two-month-old piglets who are much better able to digest solid food on their own. When buying very young piglets in the first month is better to feed them with milk. In such a simple matter, as determining the weight of a horse with a measuring tape, there are some subtleties. The animal should be level during the measurement, so you cannot do without an assistant.
In order to record possible changes in mass, it is desirable that the same person take the measurements each time. Measurement uncertainty may occur due to wool and its thickness.
Therefore, the values that are obtained before and after shearing can vary significantly, and the weight of the horse will decrease only by the amount of cropped hair.
Although determining the weight of animals without the use of special equipment and gives approximate results, but knowledge of these techniques will help you out if a similar situation develops.
The weight of a bull or a lady at the age of three to six months or not reaching a year is convenient to consider using the Froiven method; you will need the meter and the numbers given in the table below:
In the left column indicates the volume of the breast. In the upper row - the length of the body, measured along an oblique line. At the junction of indicators you will find how much a calf weighs. This way it is convenient to measure the mass of the animal at birth, but if you want to know the exact mass of the cow, use the weights.
Most often, in the household, to follow the development, it is enough to know the average mass of cattle - approximate data. But purposeful fattening of cows and bulls for meat require exact figures.
Kluwer Strauch Method
This method allows you to determine the average weight of a cow or a bull in a more adult age.To use the table, you also need to determine the volume of the chest and the length of the cow's body along an oblique line.
Oblique length is measured from the middle of the shoulder to the end of the thigh. The data for calculating the mass are summarized in the table:
If you are not sure how to find out the weight of an adult without weighing, then the Kluwer-Strauch method is perfect for you. It can be used to track the difference in performance during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, or simply to keep track of the mass of the young heifer.
Example: when measuring chest girth, you get 175 cm. The slanting body length is 165 cm. We look at where these numbers intersect in the table, and we get that the animal's weight is 443 kg.
Black Pied Cows Mass Measurement
Some breeds of cows are very different and general laws and standard systems for determining the live weight of young stock do not apply.
So, for the black-and-white breed there is a separate weight measurement table, working with which you can quite accurately “weigh” the animal without resorting to weights.
If you are wondering why a separate table has been developed for this breed, then you can read about it in our article “Black-and-white cows”.
If you do not know how to find out the weight of cattle by measurements from the table, study it:
To use the table in determining the weight of cattle, it is necessary to measure the chest girth according to the scheme described above. Further, with the help of a tape measure or measuring tape, the girth of the belly is measured in the bulk of the tape. In the table below, we are looking for the point at which the obtained values intersect - this is the live weight of cattle of the black-and-white breed.
In practice, it is inconvenient to use a tape measure to take measurements, since it is made of rigid material. If you do not have a centimeter, then you can use a string as a measuring tape - by measuring the girth, attach it to a ruler or tape measure, it is much more convenient.
We use a special tape
If you have a large farm, which breeds pork, beef and other meat, then the tables for determining the live weight of young stock are easily confused. In this case, a special measuring tape, which already has the necessary values, will help.
For those who do not know how to determine the weight of such a tape, we tell. Measure the length of the body, starting from the point where the front legs end, and look at the value on the tape. This method is much more convenient than measuring the mass of the circumference of the thoracic zones and the oblique length of the body.
It is important to understand that when taking measurements, the animal must be calm. In case of unstable behavior of cattle, with live weight, inaccuracies may occur. So, at the first measurement the heifer weighed 350 kg, at the second - 400 kg. To determine the weight more accurately, simply calculate the average value of the obtained indicators.
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How to find out the weight of cattle without weights: bull, cow, calf
Fermaved.ru »Livestock» Cows and bulls »Is it possible to determine the body weight of cattle, if the scales are broken
Finding the answer to the question of how to find out the weight of a bull without scales will allow you not to be deceived by the seller or buyer of meat.
There are several ways to determine the body weight of cattle, having studied which, you will be able to bring deceivers to clean water with lightning speed, as well as easily determine the dosage of drugs suitable for your pet. Let's quickly deal with how to find out the weight of cattle.
How to know the weight of cattle without weights
Prerequisites for calculating body mass index
There are several prerequisites to give a detailed answer to the question of why determine the indicator in question. The first is the assessment of the state of health of the offspring (that's why there are separate tables of calf weights).
The second is the possibility of obtaining a decent profit (the greater the mass of the animal, the higher the seller’s income).The third is the assessment of the performance of cattle (tables of calf weight determination help to identify the prolific younger generation).
The fourth is to learn how to make the right diet to maintain good health and increase the life expectancy of livestock.
For example, the weight of a bull's girth speaks of its ability to continue the race, therefore such an instance is not allowed to be slaughtered, although the demand for such an individual will be high, as will the price.
The averaged indicators of the cow's body weight allow dividing cattle into the following groups: selective (around half a ton), first class (about 430 kg), second class (390 kg), third (a little more than 300 kg). It is important to know that the value under consideration depends not only on the feeding habits, but also on the breed of livestock. For example, a white-porcelain male may be 750-800 kg.
Properly studied and used table for determining the weight of cows can make the farmer a rich person. Do not agree? Get familiar with the features of setting the final body weight of the animal to change your mind.
Assistants in determining the live weight of cattle
We should not hide the fact that one of the most loyal methods for estimating the body weight of large animals is the weighing procedure. Of course, the classic bezmen with which the kitchens of modern housewives are full, and even bathroom scales will not cope with the task. For this purpose, special measuring platforms with a large carrying capacity and a working surface are used.
But what to do if it is not possible to purchase such a device, and it is difficult to organize the transportation of a cow or young stock? How to determine the weight of cattle, without relying on the eye? There is a solution: it is impossible to weigh it, which means that it is necessary to use a measuring tape, which is otherwise called a “centimeter”. But how can you get an approximate body mass index? Here, the table for measuring the weight of cattle, the table for live weight of young cattle and special formulas come to the rescue.
Methods for determining body weight in cattle
If weighing bulls is problematic, then to find out the mass of the calf or cattle, it is enough to use the following methods:
- the classic version
- calculate body weight by the formula
- use the definition of body weight for chest girth.
Although the approaches have different names, they have one thing in common: in any case, it will be necessary to measure the body of an animal. What is the difference between these options? Which one is better to choose? Find out very soon.
How to know the weight of cattle on the tables
So, to make the determination of the weight of cattle measurement it is necessary to prepare a number of devices, including:
- a piece of paper
- tape for measuring live weight of cattle (centimeter),
- pencil or pen
- determinant by parameters (table of the weight of cattle).
The determination of the live indicator by measurement is as follows:
- Measure with a tape the circumference of the chest of a cow or a bull (in order not to get errors in size and correctly calculate the total for the circumference, it is necessary to take measurements around the body from the edge of the scapula along the chest line). Features of this procedure can be found when watching a video (you should learn to determine the line of the breast, to move a step in search of the answer to the question of how to find out the weight of the calf without weights).
- To measure the length of the trunk with a tape measure (measure the tape from the place where the shoulder blades connect with the shoulder to the back protrusion of the ischial tubercles, along the chest surface). Important: the tail is not taken into account.
- The obtained data can be compared with the results for which the table for determining the weight of young cattle is famous (if the calf had to be measured) and just cattle (for a cow and large livestock).
After studying such an unusual way of obtaining the desired result, the question of how to know the weight of a cow should stop worrying you.
Of course, an animal indicator of body weight in this case will be approximate, but the method under consideration, which allows to know the weight of the calf and any other representative of livestock without weights, has been working for a long time and has no particular complaints. The only thing: the table for determining the live weight of young cattle should always be at hand.
Characteristic fatness of cattle
It is worth noting that the cost of an animal is influenced not only by the weight of cattle by measurements, but also by the necessary indicator of fatness of livestock, which can be determined by probing and inspecting the animal.
Initially, the fat (still in calves) begins to be deposited in the back of the body (near the tail, sciatic tubercles), then moves to the lower back, ribs, and only then to the shoulder blades and neck.
Such an additional inspection can help isolate the young of the herd without additional calculation.
For clarity, your attention is a characteristic by which it is quite simple to determine the fatness of the animal.
From this it is clear that, first of all, individuals of the highest category will be in demand, then the second, but for them the price is significantly reduced. As for calves, their fatness is determined by the same characteristics as in cattle, therefore, three groups are also distinguished.
Calculation of body weight by the formula
If the table for determining the weight of young cattle is not available, it is permissible to use the old “old-fashioned” method - calculate it by the formula (based on live measurements). To implement it, you still have to use the measurement.
To understand how to determine the weight of a bull, you need to consider and remember the following instruction:
- measure the chest girth of a live representative (measuring unit - centimeter),
- measure the length of the trunk (it does not correspond to the height of the animal),
- multiply the obtained indicators
- divide the result by 100,
- multiply by a factor of 2.5 (if meat is in front of you) and 3 (if milky).
The error in such calculations will not exceed 5%, therefore, the weight of the csc is measured fairly easily, and most importantly, competently and effectively.
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All individuals of cattle can be divided into several age categories:
- the adult group, represented by different-sex animals, having more than three years of age, cows that were settled for the first time, whose weight when receiving less than 350 kg,
- first-time females whose life expectancy had not reached three years, but a pair of permanent incisors appeared. Here the receiving mass of more than 350 kg,
- young animals from 90 days to 3 years of age are represented by heterosexual individuals,
- young from 2 weeks to 90 days.
Determination of the mass of livestock without weights
To find out the average weight when fattening bulls for meat, there are several ways. Measure cattle with the following features:
- on the girth girth - behind the scapular joints, around the sternum taking the reference strip which runs in a vertical plane until the end of the scapula,
- the oblique length of the body - the measurement is carried out, focusing on the beginning of the humero-scapular articulation to the ischial tubercles (their posterior protrusion).
The data obtained are correlated with the table, whence the mass of livestock is recognized without the use of weight.
Indicators of approximate live weight in different sex animals in kilograms
Values for young animals
When using tabular data it is necessary to consider that there is an error from 20 to 30 kg. These indicators will differ from the result, which is obtained using to determine the mass of the scales.It should also be remembered that the weight of livestock varies depending on the age group, and in most cases it happens irregularly. Here a lot depends on the diet, climate zone, ailments and a number of other indicators.
Due to the indicators already described, on average per day we can observe variations in weight, even if the usual content is used. They make from 30 to 40 kg, or in percents that 5-7. To determine a more accurate average live weight, all parameters must be taken correctly.
A special formula is used here that can be used to identify the mass in adult bulls. For calculations, the following indicators are used:
- circumference of the sternum. Measurement is performed in close proximity to the front limbs of the animal. To do this, use a special tape or centimeter,
- straight torso length. Measure the distance from the beginning of the cervical region to the tail. You can measure with a wooden stick with marked marks.
Mass is calculated using the formula below:
- M - weight in kilograms,
- K - correction factor. The value is determined by the breed of the animal which is measured,
- And the circumference of the sternum (in cm)
- B is the straight length of the body (in cm),
The coefficient for meat direction is 2.5,
For the dairy direction - 2.
To obtain more accurate values, it is recommended to take into account the fat content of the bull.
If it is high, then the resulting value should be added from 5 to 10%, and if low, then take the same percentages.
What are the “no scales” methods based on?
A newborn calf is measured for the first time within six hours after birth. It is important to do it correctly in order to follow the growth accurately. You can find out the weight of an adult and a small bull with a stick and measuring tape.
Methods without the use of scales are based on the dependence of body weight on volume. Consider the girth of the abdomen, chest and an oblique line along the body. Live weight control should be carried out twice a year: at the beginning of spring and at the end of autumn.
The “weightless” methods are divided into four groups:
- according to Trukhanovsky
- according to Kluwer-Strauch,
- on chest girth and abdominal circumference,
- using specialized tape.
The first three methods are suitable for all breeds and are universal. There is a special table for some of the ways with which the obtained figures are compared. If the mass deviates from the norms, then the breeder should think about the life and health of the bull. Other methods are based on the calculation of certain formulas.
Tip! When analyzing the results, it is important to take into account weight changes with age, nutritional conditions and climate.
You can also find out the fatness of the animal when probing the muscles for fat deposits. They usually begin with the tail, sciatic tubercles and the sacrum, where fat accumulates the most. Then feel the lower back, ribs, and at the end of the scapula and neck. Based on the results, assign the category of high, medium and low fatness.
Method according to Trukhanovsky
The bull's chest volume should be measured, starting at 15 cm from the front legs (A), immediately behind the projections of the shoulder blades. This indicator is determined using a simple centimeter or tape measure, and the second with a conventional stick. From the neck to the first caudal segment we measure. The distance between two points will be the second value for further calculation (B). We multiply the obtained indicators, divide the product by 100 and multiply by the correction factor (K). M = A * B / 100 * K
For bulls, the amendment will be 2.5. Live weight (M) is calculated in kilograms. With a high fat content, it is increased by 5-10%, and at low, on the contrary, reduced.
The first measurement is carried out similarly to the method of Trukhanovsky. From the sciatic nerve to the protrusion of the elbow we find the diagonal strip - the second necessary quantity.All measurement procedures are usually carried out in the morning to find out the “zero” level of body weight. During this period, the bull behaves more calmly and does not contain excess food inside. The obtained parameters are compared with the finished ones, which are contained in a special table. Found figure may have an error or error.
Chest circumference and abdominal girth
The chest girth is determined by measuring tape. Depending on the resulting value, choose a formula for calculating body weight.
You can learn the weight by the formulas:
- Y1 = 5.3 * X - 507 - if X = 170 ÷ 180 (cm),
- Y2 = 5.3 * X - 486 - if X = 181 ÷ 191 (cm),
- Y3 = 5.3 * X - 465 - if X ≥ 192 (cm), where Y1,2,3 - weight in kg, X - chest circumference.
The value of live weight is determined by the table, if you measure the chest of the bull and the abdominal cavity in the girth of the widest place. The indicators are compared with similar data and thus recognize the weight category of the animal. The method is usually applied to young or teenage individuals.
Special tape for measurement
Measuring tape is designed for certain breeds of cattle. When measuring the breast of a bull, to find out a more accurate result, it is tightened by pressing hairs. The tape is applied behind the front limbs. The pose of the animal in this case should be relaxed, and the head raised and straight. Kilograms immediately listed on the tape, depending on the length and height. This method is the easiest and fastest among weightless.
Tip! Each reception can have an error of about 30 kg. For the need for accurate measurement, it is better to use weights.
Recommendations for more accurate results
To reduce the possible error, you should use the following tips:
- produce several measurements, record them and calculate the arithmetic average,
- take into account the specificity of the breed,
- correctly make measurements taking into account the pose of the bull, time of year and other recommendations.
It is possible to learn the weight of cattle not only with the help of scales, but also without them. Not all business executives can afford such an expensive inventory, and there is no point in acquiring it, with a small population. Compliance with all rules and recommendations ensures the determination of the value of the mass of the bull, as close as possible to the present. Everyone can choose the most suitable and easiest way to measure. Often it is necessary to sell, to balance the food, and also to determine the health of the animal.
How to determine the weight of a live bull by girth
There is another way to determine the weight of a goby by girth. This approach is most often used for small individuals - calves or heifers, since they are easier to keep in one place and measure.
The method consists in measuring the circumference of the breast in the widest place. The result obtained must be compared with the data given in the table of weight of cattle for gauges. For example, if the value per centimeter or any measuring tape is 80 cm, then the weight of the animal is equal to 30 kg.
Naturally, these are average values, however, all materials used in the work have already been repeatedly re-checked. Want to verify the performance of the proposed methods for measuring the mass of a cow on the table, calf circumference, etc., conduct an experiment.
As you understood from the review, there are several ways to determine the body weight of cattle:
- The clearest - put on the scales.
- Optimal for calves - on the girth of the chest.
- According to the tables - suitable for any cattle (currently there are recorded data even for pigs and boars).
- According to the formula - with a smaller percentage of the defect (suitable for any age of the animal).
Which option to use? The answer to this question will depend only on the capabilities of the farmer or person who wants to buy cattle on the market (with hands).
Tip: measure several times and select the average value (for example, determine the weight of the bull from the table, then calculate it using the formula).This recommendation is associated with the well-known proverb: “Measure seven times - cut one”. You will be attentive - you will cease to doubt the obtained results.
Measuring the weight of cows and calves with a conventional measuring tape
How much does a cow weigh. Measuring our cows with tape
Now you can say with confidence that you know how to find out the weight of cattle from the tables, and the weight of the goby from the girth. Determining the weight of cattle turns out to be not so difficult.
Determine the weight of the bull without weights in several ways + table measuring cattle
One of the most important zootechnical indicators is weight. Information about its meaning is necessary for the following:
- analyzing the average daily weight gain,
- correction of feeding patterns
- clarify the number of drugs during veterinary activities,
- breeding work
- formulating the sales price.
Special computer programs have been compiled which, on the basis of daily weight gain, can correct the diet of the animal.
How to find out the weight of cattle and young cattle without weights? Cattle Weight Table
The determination of cattle weight is an event faced by all owners of cows, bulls and calves. Sometimes the determination of the weight of cattle is required to calculate the giving of medicines, and most often when selling animals to private entrepreneurs. But how to determine the weight of cattle (including young), if there are no weights on the farm? To do this, use the table for determining the weight of cattle by gauging (and the table for determining the weight of young cattle by gauging).
Sometimes the determination of the weight of cattle is required to calculate the giving of medicines, and most often when selling animals to private entrepreneurs.
But how to determine the weight of cattle (including young), if there are no weights on the farm? To do this, use the table for determining the weight of cattle by gauging (and the table for determining the weight of young cattle by gauging).
So, measuring livestock to determine the weight is carried out on such parameters:
1) The girth of the animal's chest - behind the shoulder blades, around the chest along the line that runs vertically from the end of the shoulder blade.
2) Oblique length of the body. It is measured from the front edge of the humero-scapular junction to the posterior protrusion of the ischial tubercles.
Using these measurements, you can find out the weight of cattle - according to the table of measuring cattle weight.
Determination of weight of young cattle by measurement
When selling cattle in live weight, the price is affected not only by the weight itself, but also by the measure of the fatness of the animal. The fatness of cattle is determined during the inspection by probing the muscle tissue and areas of fat deposition.
In cattle, fat is deposited, first of all, on the back of the body: near the tail, on the ischial tubercles, sacrum, then on the lower back, maklakah, ribs.
Lastly, livestock fat is deposited on the neck and shoulder blades.
Measure of the fatness of cows
1 - cows of higher fatness. This group includes animals with well-developed musculature, rounded torso, slightly noticeable shoulder blades, rounded sciatic tubercles and maclacs, well-formed thighs, not protruding spinous processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, clearly palpable deposits of subcutaneous fat in the tail root region, ischial hillocks and 2 last ribs. 2 - cows of average fatness. Animals belonging to this group are characterized by a well-developed musculature, slightly angular forms of the body, prominent shoulder blades, slightly tucked hips, protruding, but not sharply, maklakami, sciatic tubercles, spinous processes of lumbar and dorsal vertebrae. Fat deposits are felt only at the root of the tail and on the ischial tubercles. 3 - cows below average fatness. Animals that belong to the third group, have poorly developed muscles, angular form of the body, protruding shoulder blades, flat and tucked hips, prominent protruding spinous processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, sciatic tubercles and maklakami. Fat deposits are not detectable. Recall that calves are considered young cattle, regardless of sex, from 3 months to 3 years of age. 1 - calves of higher fatness.These animals have well-rounded bodies, muscles well developed, well-formed hips, back, loin and scapulae, not protruded spinous processes of lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, in the root of the tail, on the sciatic mounds, neutered bulls - in the scrotum area there are fat deposits. 2 - calves of average fatness. This group includes young cattle with not too rounded torso, satisfactorily developed muscles, protruding processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, tucked up hips. Fat deposits can be felt in the tail area, but not necessarily. 3 - calves below average fatness. Animals belonging to this group are characterized by an angular form of the body, poorly developed muscles, bulging maklaks, sciatic tubercles, spinous processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, withers. Fat deposits in calves of the 3rd group are not detectable. Thus, to such popular questions - “How to find out the weight of a cow?”, “How to find out the weight of a calf?” There is a simple answer: the table of cattle weight by measurements and the table of live weight of young cattle. By the way, the same method can be used to find out the weight of pigs without weights. Tatyana Kuzmenko, member of the editorial board Sobkor of the online publication AtmAgro. Agroindustrial Gazette (25 , average: 4,48 from 5) You purchase livestock and you need to check the weight of animals without measuring devices? No problem. We will help you to find out how much a cow weighs, having at hand only a measuring tape. Today, it is customary to buy pets at the price of live weight, so knowing its exact figure is extremely necessary. Also, this knowledge will be necessary for the preparation of the correct diet in the process of growth of the animal. The average weight of a cow, of course, depends on its type, breed and age. However, do not forget about the conditions of its content. With normal growth and proper feeding, the mass of an adult individual is 350-450 kilograms. Small breed animals reach about 300 kilograms, large ones - up to 800 kilograms. Also, body weight depends on the sex of the animal. Gobies are a little more cows, as a rule, one and a half times. The average weight of a live bull ranges from 500 to 700 kilograms. Males of large meat breeds by the age of five recruit over 1 ton. If you are going to purchase a cow, you should know to which weight category it belongs. This will help to properly assess the state of health and proper care of the animal. Among the young cows there are:
Measure of fatness of young cattle
The weight of the cow. How to find out without weights, folk methods, the table of weight of cows
This group includes animals with well-developed musculature, rounded torso, slightly noticeable shoulder blades, rounded sciatic tubercles and maclacs, well-formed thighs, not protruding spinous processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, clearly palpable deposits of subcutaneous fat in the tail root region, ischial hillocks and 2 last ribs.
2 - cows of average fatness.
Animals belonging to this group are characterized by a well-developed musculature, slightly angular forms of the body, prominent shoulder blades, slightly tucked hips, protruding, but not sharply, maklakami, sciatic tubercles, spinous processes of lumbar and dorsal vertebrae. Fat deposits are felt only at the root of the tail and on the ischial tubercles.
3 - cows below average fatness. Animals that belong to the third group, have poorly developed muscles, angular form of the body, protruding shoulder blades, flat and tucked hips, prominent protruding spinous processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, sciatic tubercles and maklakami. Fat deposits are not detectable.
Recall that calves are considered young cattle, regardless of sex, from 3 months to 3 years of age.
1 - calves of higher fatness.These animals have well-rounded bodies, muscles well developed, well-formed hips, back, loin and scapulae, not protruded spinous processes of lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, in the root of the tail, on the sciatic mounds, neutered bulls - in the scrotum area there are fat deposits.
2 - calves of average fatness. This group includes young cattle with not too rounded torso, satisfactorily developed muscles, protruding processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, tucked up hips. Fat deposits can be felt in the tail area, but not necessarily.
3 - calves below average fatness. Animals belonging to this group are characterized by an angular form of the body, poorly developed muscles, bulging maklaks, sciatic tubercles, spinous processes of the lumbar and dorsal vertebrae, withers. Fat deposits in calves of the 3rd group are not detectable.
Thus, to such popular questions - “How to find out the weight of a cow?”, “How to find out the weight of a calf?” There is a simple answer: the table of cattle weight by measurements and the table of live weight of young cattle. By the way, the same method can be used to find out the weight of pigs without weights.
Tatyana Kuzmenko, member of the editorial board Sobkor of the online publication AtmAgro. Agroindustrial Gazette
(25 , average: 4,48 from 5)
You purchase livestock and you need to check the weight of animals without measuring devices? No problem. We will help you to find out how much a cow weighs, having at hand only a measuring tape.
Today, it is customary to buy pets at the price of live weight, so knowing its exact figure is extremely necessary. Also, this knowledge will be necessary for the preparation of the correct diet in the process of growth of the animal. The average weight of a cow, of course, depends on its type, breed and age.
However, do not forget about the conditions of its content. With normal growth and proper feeding, the mass of an adult individual is 350-450 kilograms. Small breed animals reach about 300 kilograms, large ones - up to 800 kilograms.
Also, body weight depends on the sex of the animal. Gobies are a little more cows, as a rule, one and a half times. The average weight of a live bull ranges from 500 to 700 kilograms. Males of large meat breeds by the age of five recruit over 1 ton.
If you are going to purchase a cow, you should know to which weight category it belongs. This will help to properly assess the state of health and proper care of the animal. Among the young cows there are:
Interesting to know
Today, champions in heavy weight among the bulls are representatives of the porcelain-white breed. These males on average reach a mass of at least 800 kilograms. As for the female, the record breakers are the cows of Mount Katahdin.
One of these cows weighed 2270 kilograms. Of course, such a result is a long-term work of specialists and the achievement of world breeding.
You do not have scales, but you need to know the dimensions of the animal, then the following methods will help you determine the weight.
It is necessary to have only a measuring tape, several formulas and tables. You will find them right here. Of course, all these methods allow us to determine the approximate data, that is, integers without taking into account grams. But even this will be enough for you in personal practice.
For example, such knowledge will help to make up the diet of the animal.
By body measurement or Trukhanov method
This method is considered the most popular and easiest. To calculate the mass you need to use the tape and measure the animal. For cattle, we need to know only two parameters: the chest girth, which is measured behind the shoulder blades, and the straight length of the body. Then the data obtained is calculated by the formula.See figure 1 for more details on how to take measurements.
The point for taking measurements to determine the live weight of adult cattle, according to the Trukhanov method. If you use this method, you should also add to the number of the received fatty percentage. If above average fatness, then add 5-10%, if lower - take 5-10%.
The formula for calculating the mass of adult livestock This method is also used to determine the mass of an adult individual. This is done by the following method: measurements of chest girth and oblique body length are measured. To get the first number, you need to cut the measuring tape under the chest at the distance of the palm width from the elbow joint of the front leg of the cow.
See Figure 2 for more details. Measurement using the Kluver-Strauch method To obtain the second number, the tape should be fixed at the level of the anterior protrusion of the shoulder joint and pulled up to the sciatic hill. Then we verify the data in a special table.
For example, if the girth of an animal's chest is 160 centimeters, and the slanting body length is 145 centimeters, then at the intersection of these figures in the table we find a figure of 324 kilograms.
Table for determining the live weight of adult cattle (according to Kluwer-Strauch)
After calculating and analyzing a large amount of biometric data, scientists managed to create a special table for determining the live weight of cows by belly volume. Initially, this method was provided only for the black-and-white breed. To determine the need to measure the circumference of the chest and belly in the largest volume of its parts. Data check table.
Determination of live weight of black-motley cows by measurements, kg
To determine the weight in this way, you need to measure the chest girth: take a measuring tape and circle it around the body of the animal so that it lies under the breast. Next, we calculate the data by the equation. In this case, the first formula is applied if the chest girth is about 170-180 centimeters, the second - at 181-191 centimeters, the third - more than 192 centimeters.
Y is the live weight of the cow in kilograms,
X - chest girth of the shoulder blades in centimeters.
Calf weight measurement method
In order to find out the weight of the calf, you also need to use a special table created by Forever. To do this, there is one simple way, as in the same way as in the Kluver-Strauch method, you must first measure the circumference of the animal’s chest and the oblique body length (see Figure 2). Then we look for the resulting figure in the table.
For example, if the oblique body length is 100 centimeters, and the chest girth is 110, then at the intersection of these figures in the table we find a figure of 112 kilograms. Now we know the weight of our baby.
Fawain's calf weight measurement table
Remember that the live weight of a cow in this case is an average and approximate figure. Of course, the exact weight of the animal can only be determined on the scales.
Prerequisites for knowledge of cattle weight
First, we will discuss why it is necessary to determine the approximate weight of cattle at home. In fact, this seemingly inconvenient procedure has many very important goals. But first things first.
First: to know the weight of the calf - why is it necessary for the breeder? To begin with, there are certain mass standards for newborn cows and gobies.
If the baby is lagging behind or exceeds this indicator, then you should think: either he has a disease that requires treatment, or it is a potential sire or a good milch cow.
One way or another, the calf now needs more attention than the others.
Second, why determine the weight of the cow? Another almost rhetorical question for any experienced farmer.
The fact is that chicks with greater mass are potentially more effective sources of milk or calves.
Those who are lagging behind in development are not so good, and therefore they are less likely to be allowed to mating without first correcting the situation at the expense of vitamin supplements or a banal increase in diet.
Third: determining the weight of the bull - what is the need here? The first reason is pretty obvious. Gobies are most often grown either for meat or as producers. And there, and there, a large mass speaks of greater efficiency. The second has already been mentioned above: too little weight is a sign of a possible illness or a lag in development.
So, if you systematize and briefly outline the prerequisites for determining the weight of bulls, cows and calves, the following list will be released:
- determination of the exact value of daily weight gain in calves,
- control over the volume and quality of the diet,
- optimization of veterinary treatments,
- the formation of certain groups of livestock,
- sale of adults.
Five main reasons to measure the weight of the representatives of cattle is quite an impressive figure, so you can finish with this question.
Methods and methods of measurement
Actually, the above reasons are more than enough to attend to the solution of the mass calculation problem. Now the turn has come for the main point: how is the determination of the weight of cattle by measuring the body or by some other means (but without using weights). There are several options.
- the Trukhanovsky and Kluver-Strauch method (measurement of the girth of the belly and the length of the body),
- on the chest,
- using special tape.
Each of these methods needs more detailed consideration.
By girth belly
This method is most often used for young individuals, adolescents among cows. So, how to find out the weight of a calf without weights? First you need to measure the chest girth in the thickest part. The first measurement itself is carried out using the same centimeter tape or tape measure.
Then it is time to check the table, which will indicate the ratio of this indicator with the mass (for calves of different breeds, as a rule, different tables are used). Approximate ratios of chest circumference in centimeters to body weight in kilograms:
- 80 cm - 30 kg,
- 100 cm - 60 kg,
- 120 cm - 129 kg,
- 130 cm - 160 kg.
Here to measure the length of the body will be as useful. Fortunately, with small calves is easier, because of their smaller size. Although the energy of the kids somewhat compensates for this moment, so you shouldn’t especially relax.
The rule of morning measurements also works in this case, because calves are less active at this time (if, of course, they have not yet had time to wake up).
Special tape method
To use this technique, as is clear from the name, you must purchase a special tape. By the procedure itself, it is very similar to the two above.
The only difference is that we measure the circumference of the chest directly behind the chest extremities, and on most of the measuring tapes there is a separation indicating the approximate mass in relation to the resulting length, height.
There is a major difficulty: for accurate data it is necessary that the cow keeps its head even and straight. To achieve this is not so easy, however, having shown a certain share of ingenuity, there is a chance to convince the burenka to harden at least for a while.
Of course, all the above methods do not give accurate results even if there is a table. The error is always present in the amount of from 5 to 50, or even 75 kg. These numbers are quite large even for cattle, so there are a number of recommendations that allow you to get more accurate results.
With this video you can measure the weight of the cows
In this video, we conduct a monthly measurement of our boxes.
In the video, we demonstrated how using dimensional
Of course, we should first mention the most obvious, but also the most expensive - the acquisition of special weights.This unit, which is a fairly large platform with a measuring part, is widely used on industrial farms and has the greatest accuracy in determining the mass.
However, the price of the issue here is too high for most household owners.
The first option is obvious to everyone, with the exception of the hardened losers of the school mathematics course. It is enough to calculate the arithmetic average. In principle, this could be stopped, but we will make a small explanation.
All of the above methods (as well as other related to "home") can be carried out independently without interference and cost, so they are the ideal way out of 1-2 goals in a modest household. Simply put: if there is an opportunity, it is better to use it.
The results of measurements are recorded, and then using the school program, they calculate the geometric mean. The latter will be the most accurate indicator of live weight of cattle, that in relation to adults, that for young animals.
Amateur believes that a cow - she is a cow. Accordingly, the above-mentioned methods and all the tables found will work ideally for the homemade cows. Alas, it is not. There are many different breeds, each with its own specificity: dairy, meat, mixed.
Even an unacknowledged person in this business can distinguish the Herefords from the representatives of Aberdeen-Angus. There are enough differences for the naked eye.
Of course, there are almost more internal differences between breeds than external ones. And this also applies to the masses (although it applies to both of these points). Even in newborn calves with different origins, the initial weight can be divided.
For example, here are some numbers. The average measurement of the mass of young animals varies around 40 kg, however, for Holsteens, it is 39-48 kg, for black-and-feathery - 30-40 kg, red-steppe ones - 25-30 kg, and for Holmogorsky - 28-32 kg
And these indicators also should not be limited. The constitution of bulls and cows of different breeds also differs (this can be seen even from photos and videos with them), and this affects the measurement data.
Of course, the conclusion suggests itself that, in order to calculate accurate results, all the same expensive electronic clocks will be required, however, taking into account all the above-mentioned features, the error will not exceed 10-15 kg.
Of course, if everything was done correctly.
In the conditions of the household, methods for measuring the mass of cattle without using weights are a must to study.
On small farms, electronic scales for cattle are not only unprofitable, they also take up too much of such valuable space, while the “centimeter”, tape measure or special measuring tape fits in your pocket, and almost everyone can calculate the arithmetic average of the results.