Whitewashing apple trees - a way to protect the tree from diseases and pests, as well as improving its quality of life.
This article talks about the most common ways to protect fruit trees from sunburn, various pests and fungal diseases, which significantly shorten the life of beautiful fruit crops and reduce yields.
Whitewashing apple trees - when and how to whiten?
It is necessary to care for fruit trees constantly, all-season. One of the most important activities for the care of an apple tree is the care of its cover, that is, the bark of the tree. The bark of the tree, like skin, must be protected from sunburn, rodents, various insect pests.
The health and integrity of the bark ensures the vital longevity of the fruit tree and, accordingly, obtaining an annual healthy crop.
If you do not take care of and care for the bark of the apple tree, then frequent breaks of stem tissues, peeling large areas of bark can lead to premature death of the tree.
When to whiten an apple tree?
Care for the coating of the fruit tree is in the correct whitewashing of the tree trunk. Experienced gardeners recommend keeping their apple trees whitewashed year round. Whitewashing must be done at least three times:
- Autumn whitewashIt is held from mid-October to early November.
- Re-whitewash produced with the onset of spring heat in late March, early April.
- Additionally, you need to whiten an apple tree in the middle of summer.In particular, after the rains wash off the main layer of protection from the bark of the tree.
Why whiten apple trees?
The answer to this question lies on the surface. The fact is that the white color is able to reflect the sun's rays, and the color of the bark of the apple trees is dark, so it attracts light rays, which leads to the formation of sunburn.
Sunburns come from the end of January, the intensity of their manifestation increases with increasing daylight hours and sun activity.
Therefore, if the bark of the tree is not whitewashed, then it will attract the sun's rays, as a result of heating of the apple tree trunk during the daytime, sap flow begins to occur inside it.
In the evening, when the sun is gone, the temperature drops sharply, which leads to crystallization of the juice, and, accordingly, to ruptures of stem tissues - this is called sunburn.
Exactly, like in summer, the dark color of the bark attracts the heat of the sun, which in turn leads to overheating of the stem of the fruit tree, excessive sap flow during fruit ripening, and sunburn.
And when the tree trunk has a white color, it reflects the sun's rays, thus avoiding the occurrence of burns. Whitewashing apple trees is their external protection against unpredictable weather conditions, as well as against various pests.
The most effective is the autumn whitewashing of apple trees, but if it was missed, it is recommended that with the onset of spring, as soon as the frost subsides, to make the staining of the trunks of fruit trees.
In standard situations, when spring whitewashing is a repeated event, it can be carried out at a later period, when the snow is almost thawing.
How to whiten and how to prepare a solution?
How to whiten and which substances are best used for whitewashing depends on what period the whitewash is made, and also for what purpose: to prevent the occurrence of sunburn, or to protect the tree from various pests. Consider several options for preparing solutions at home.
The most popular whitening method involves the use of lime. This is the most profitable way to process fruit trees, especially if there are a lot of them in the garden. To prepare the solution will need:
- clay, either casein or wood glue,
To extinguish the lime with water, add 50% by weight of lime to clay, or glue for viscosity and prepare a solution of consistency, like sour cream. The solution should be very thick, since during processing it will cover the tree trunk with a thick layer that will not be washed off as quickly as with whitewash with liquid lime.
In order to protect your apple tree from the sun's rays and at the same time make the treatment of various insect pests, you can use the following composition:
- lime pushonka about three hundred grams,
- half a glass of milk, or liquid glue, which can be found in your home,
- two liters water,
- 5 grams of blue vitriol,
- 5 grams of powdered substance - DDT.
In cases when young saplings are processed, it is best to use chalk, since lime can slightly damage a young, not yet strong crust of a tree. Mel recommended for use throughout all treatments during the first years of the apple tree life.
For autumn processing of fruit crops The following solution is used:
- 2 liters of water, or you can apply chamomile extracts,
- 40 grams of copper sulphate, you can use iron sulphate, then the apple tree will receive an additional battery - iron, along with protection from insects,
- as a thickener, you can use glue or clay in the ratio of 50% of the total amount of the entire contents,
- it is also necessary to add creolin and "Knockdown" in order to protect the apple tree from various rodents who are not averse to eat the bark of the apple tree.
Among other things, adult fruit trees can be treated with water-based paint or acrylic. Their color should be necessarily white, and not with some sort of gray shades.
When processing such compounds, it is necessary to add antifungal preparations to the paint, which are capable of creating a protective film around the trunk of the fruit tree to prevent the occurrence of all kinds of tree diseases.
Very important! When processing with paints, the protective layer does not allow air to pass through; therefore, this method of treatment can be used only once and only for an adult fruit tree.
First stage - This is a manual cleansing of a tree trunk from an old and lagging bark. This procedure is best done after the rain.
It is necessary with hands, or with the help of a plastic spatula to remove from the trunk and skeletal branches all the existing lichens, mosses, exfoliated parts of the bark. To clean narrow openings in the trunk, it is best to use fine wood chips or a wooden knife.
Clearing the trunk of lichens and mosses - This is a kind of cleansing of various kinds of bacteria and harmful microorganisms, so all the cleaned content is best burned.
Second phase implies a disinfection measures. It is better not to carry out disinfection immediately, but when the weather will recover and no rain is foreseen in the next two days.
As a disinfectant solution, you can use a three or five percent solution of copper or iron sulphate, and Bordeaux mixture is also often used. HOM and OXIhom.
It is necessary to spray the bark of the trunk and skeletal branches with fine droplets similar to mist, for this it is better to use a reinforced sprayer. The solution is applied in a very thin layer, in no case should it be allowed to run down the branches and the trunk. So you can do more harm than good.
A high concentration of copper and iron in the soil is poisonous., which helps to reduce the immunity of fruit trees, the occurrence of a high susceptibility to various diseases and drying.
The most effective and safe for fruit trees is to use soap-ash solution. Ash is a disinfectant, and the soap is used for sticking ash particles.
To prepare such a solution, it is necessary to dissolve 50 grams of soap and 3 kilograms of ash in 10 liters of very hot water. In order to process the tree, you need to take a rag, or a bundle of hay, dip it in the solution and wash the trunk and branches of the tree with it.
This method will allow not only to disinfect an apple tree, but also to feed it with potassium and phosphorus elements.
The third stage it is necessary to repair all the wounds on the trunk. This can be done with the help of clay talkers.
Cook it easy enough. You need to take two hundred grams of pure clay, one hundred grams of manure and a small amount of straw dust. Dilute all ingredients with water to the consistency of sour cream. With this solution, fluff all wounds and cracks on the trunk of a tree.
In addition, the stores have a huge selection of different putties for fruit trees.
If there is no desire to prepare a therapeutic substance on its own, then you can use the finished product, for example, a paste has a very good effect.RanNet", Which is also suitable for processing cut parts of branches after autumn pruning.
Well, the fourth stage is the immediate whitening of the fruit culture.
Whitewash "Bitumast TM".
Ready mix for whitewashing.
Whitewash to fight against: fungus, hares, rodents, ants
To protect the bark of the tree from fungus, hares, rodents and ants during the autumn whitewashing of the fruit tree, you must use whitening solution based on copper sulfate with the addition of creolin and "Knockdown".
Such a solution will allow to destroy the fungal spores, which are most often located in the microcracks of the tree bark deposited under the bark of the ants' eggs.
Also from this solution will emanate a frightening odor for hares and rodents, which in the winter season are not averse to feasting on apple bark.
Reasons for whitening an apple tree in autumn, spring and winter
Whitewashing apple trees in spring designed to protect the fruit tree from sunburn of varying intensity.
This is because spring is characterized by unpredictable weather conditions. If the spring day can be sunny and warm, then at night the air temperature may drop to a minus mark on the thermometer.
This temperature difference is the main cause of sunburn. Therefore, it is necessary at the end of March to hold spring whitewashing of apple tree trunks to protect your trees from such damage.
Whitewashing apple trees in the fall is also necessary, as in the spring. This is done to prepare the apple tree for winter, to destroy most of the insects - pests that love to spend the winter in the pores of the bark and under the bark.
And Autumn whitewash helps protect the apple tree from the onset of various fungal diseases. Since the copper sulphate contained in the solution, which is carried out processing of wood, can destroy all fungal spores that are in the bark.
Winter whitewashing, as a rule, is carried out only in the southern regions of the country, where winter is not distinguished by frosty severity.
Conclusion and advice
For processing the trunks of apple trees in order to save the prepared solution, it is best to use a brush, the width of which should be equal to the width of the apple tree.
So the whitening solution will leave much less. If there is no need for savings, then a spray gun can also be used to handle the trunks.
Before you start to whiten the trunk of the apple tree, it is recommended to remove the top layer of soil around the trunk, no more than 5 cm deep. It is necessary to whiten, starting from the lowest part of the trunk, and to stain the skeletal branches to a height of at least 30 centimeters from the base of the trunk.
It is necessary to carry out activities for the protection of fruit trees annually. Only in this case, you can achieve better health for your apple tree, increasing the yield and quality of fruit taste.
But the most important thing is that protective measures will help to prolong the life of the fruit tree.
Why do I need to whiten an apple tree
To be serious about whitewashing apple trees, you need to understand its essence. Many believe that the procedure has only a decorative meaning, and it is carried out according to a long-established tradition. But in fact, the main function of whitewashing apple - protection.
The whitewashed garden looks neat and very elegant
The tree has its own protective layer - the bark. It protects the trunk from sudden changes in temperature, cold winds, severe frosts and sun, as well as from pest colonies. But the bark can be damaged, peel off, cracks, wounds can form on it, and diseases can develop. Using whitewash you can:
- to protect the apple tree from sunburn in winter and early spring, when there is no foliage - natural protection from the sun's rays,
The goal of spring whitewashing of apple trees is to protect the plants from the heat of the sun in late winter and early spring.
In spring, apple trees damage the bark and wood of the trunk, and there may be frost cracks in the trunk and skeletal branches.
Perennial winter - one of many pests whose eggs hibernate in cracks of bark and branches of fruit trees.
The bark of apple trees in winter is a special delicacy for hares, mice and other rodents.
The most dangerous for unbleached trees is the spring sun. It quickly warms up the dark shtamb apple, which provokes the beginning of sap flow. Under the influence of night frosts, the juice expands and breaks the tree tissue.
White color prevents rapid warming of the trunk, so that sap flow does not start early. The protective mixture can not kill pathogens and most pests. But it will be extremely difficult for parasites to settle in a tree, in which all damage to the bark is healed and closed.
Apple trees preferably whitened twice a year - in spring and autumn. The spring procedure is designed primarily to protect the apple from ultraviolet burns and cracking of the bark. If the composition of the bleaching mixture is prepared correctly and the color remains on the trunks during the summer, then in hot weather the trees will be protected from overheating.
Even in hot weather, whitened apple trees will be protected from the scorching sun.
The best time for spring whitewashing of apple trees is the end of February – the beginning of April, before the appearance of foliage and the release of pests. In autumn, the trees are whitened after the leaves fall - in November.
Whitewashing apple trees in the fall is an additional protection of the garden against diseases and pests. It is especially important to carry out this procedure in areas where winter thaws often occur.
The following tools can be used for applying whitewash:
- Mocha brush. Made from lime bast. Brush stiffness is controlled by simply tying the lint near the handle or farther from it. The tool is better than others adapted for applying whitewash on the bark of an apple tree, perfectly retains the working solution.
Bladder brush is designed for whitewash work with water-based paints.
Maklovitsa - rectangular or round building brush, which is often used for garden work
With the help of the spray gun, you can quickly and accurately cover a large area of the garden.
We whitewash apple trees in spring
Winter is fast and steadily approaching your garden, and with it wind and icing, an invasion of rodents and pests that overwinter in the bark.
All this can damage your apple orchard.
You will find out the reason for whitening apple trees, whether to whiten only in spring, how to whiten and how to protect your garden from negative factors through proper whitewashing of trees.
What is it for?
In order to understand the reason for whitening trees, it is worthwhile to tell a little about their bark. For a tree, the bark is like leather for humans.It encounters adverse and dangerous environmental conditions first and protects internal organs. There are a lot of such unfavorable conditions for wood: sudden temperature drops, piercing winds, severe frosts and sun-rays, the effect of pests and teeth of rodents. The bark of a tree can get sunburns or frostbite; it hurts, exfoliates and cracks. As well as damage to human skin, bark injury leads to the penetration of infection and pests into the tree, its weakening, premature withering and death.
For this reason, it is necessary to protect the bark of trees.
To protect and need whitewash, it allows you to:
- protect the bark from burns - in winter and early spring, when there is no foliage that serves as a natural protection from the sun's rays,
- protect the apple tree from temperature fluctuations and prevent cracking of the bark,
- protect the apple tree from the action of insect pests, which lay the larvae in the bark.
It is a mistake to treat the whitewashing of apple trees as a decorative occupation. Experienced gardeners have noticed that whitewashing tree bark is an effective protective measure.
When should be whitewashed apple trees?
Gardeners claim that the most useful to whiten trees two or three times a year:
- the main and most important whitewashing of trees is held in the autumn in the following terms: from October to November,
- renewing, repeated whitewashing of trees in spring is carried out on such dates - from late February to early March,
- the third whitewash is done in July.
Consider when whitewashing is done in the spring.
They do it in February - early March, at a time when a tree trunk can warm up to a temperature of 11ºC during the day, which contributes to early sap flow. At the same time, winter and the beginning of spring have very cold nights, when the temperature can drop to -10ºC, this will result in the juice freezing, tissue rupture and the formation of frost breeders.
White paint applied to the trunks of apple trees and skeletal branches, effectively repels the rays of the sun, helps protect the bark from overheating and protects the apple tree from early awakening.
Let's see when to whiten an apple in the fall. It is whitewash at this time of year is considered the most important. Fruits of apple trees without this procedure not only lose their decorative effect, but also die, since sharp fluctuations in temperature in autumn and winter lead to severe damage to the bark of the apple tree.
Whitewash is necessary in october-novemberbefore the frosts start. If you successfully hold whitewash, the garden will be precisely protected from severe frosts, from the formation of frost on the branches and trunks, as well as from hungry rodents that eat the bark of apple trees.
Is it necessary to whiten young saplings
Young seedlings with greenish bark and incompletely formed wood are advised. do not whiten. The main reason for the refusal of whitewashing is that whitewashing can burn the unformed bark of the tree and contribute to the air insulation of the bark of the tree and wood. Because of this, metabolic processes are disturbed in young seedlings.
Experienced gardeners are advised to whiten both adults and young apple trees. If young apple trees do not whiten at all, then freezers and sunburn can damage the seedling much more than whitewashing. In order not to damage the apple sapling when whitewashing, you need to adhere such recommendations:
- Halve the concentration of the prepared lime solution.
- Instead of a solution of lime, you can use a special water-based or acrylic paint for trees.
- You can also use a silver biomask.
The most popular compositions whitewash
Young apple trees can be whitened with various mixtures. The main thing is that after painting the bark was white, it could breathe and was slowly washed off. Mixtures with such criteria include the following: lime mortar, water-based paint, water-dispersion paint.
In order for the bleaching mixture to stick better to the bark of a young apple tree, can add:
- laundry soap,
- PVA glue,
- casein glue.
Means for whitewashing can be prepared by yourself. Here are some simple recipes for whitewashing young apple trees, and we will answer the question: how to whiten an apple tree in the fall.
The composition of the mixture must include components of three types:
- Means which gives a whiteness (chalk or lime).
- The means by which the solution will adhere to the cortex.
- Means that disinfects (usually used copper sulfate).
In order to prepare a whitewash solution, you need to mix all the ingredients according to the option chosen. All ingredients are stirred until smooth.
The prepared solution should not be too thick, otherwise a thick layer of whitewash will peel off. A too liquid mixture will drain on the apple tree. The correct variant of the prepared solution is when the thickness of the applied mixture is 2-3 mm. 1st option:
- 2.5 kg of lime,
- 1 bucket of water
- 0.5 kg of copper sulphate,
- 0.2 kg casein glue.
- 2.5 kg of slaked lime,
- 1 bucket of water
- 0.3 kg of copper sulphate,
- 1 kg of oily clay
- 1 spade of cow dung.
- 2.5 kg of chalk,
- 1 bucket of water
- 10 tablespoons flour paste.
- 2.5 kg of chalk,
- 1 bucket of water
- 10 tablespoons of soap.
- 2 kg of chalk,
- 10 liters of water
- 0.2 kg of clay.
Rules of the procedure
Consider how to whiten an apple in the fall and spring.
If whitewashing for the winter was not carried out, then in the spring, apart from whitening the apple tree, it is necessary to prepare the skeletal branches and the trunk of the trees. It is better to perform the following procedures on a damp, cloudy day.
To start an apple tree is necessary free from old dead barkTo do this, spread the fabric or oilcloth under the tree and remove with a wooden scraper pieces of bark that easily lag behind. It is necessary to process the entire stem and a third of the skeletal branches. For work, you can take the old gloves, and the exfoliated bark is better to burn. After cleaning the bark, it must be subjected to disinfectionFor this, on a sunny day, treat the shtamb and the base of the branches with special means: a 5% solution of blue vitriol or HOM, Abiga-Peak, and Oxyf.
Proper spraying is done with a spray (fine) from a very close distance, so that the liquid forms a mist, which smoothly settles on the bark, and does not flow along it. It is necessary to carry out spraying in the morning, so that by the evening the apple tree dries out.
It is undesirable to disinfect annually with preparations containing copper, since the metal accumulates in the tree and its concentration becomes toxic to the apple tree. In order to protect your garden from such a phenomenon, you need to alternate spraying a soap and ash solution that is harmless to the tree, but cleans the bark no worse, and fungicide treatment.
In order to heal injuries and cracks, which were formed during the processing of wood, use garden paste "RanNet", consisting of copper sulfate and humate. Since the paste is not moisture resistant, the procedure is carried out in dry weather.
Also recommend the use of paste "BlagoSad" Ukrainian production, which is well responded to experienced gardeners. It is made on a natural fat base and perfectly kept on the trunk.
After all the preparatory work is done, proceed with the procedure. The optimal height is calculated by the formula: the entire stem plus a third of the skeletal branches. Mature trees are whitewashed at a height of 1.5-1.8 meters, but in principle, every experienced gardener tries to whitewash them higher.
In general, the process of whitewashing in the fall and spring is almost the same.
After reading this article and following the simple tips, you can make your garden healthy and well-groomed, and he will pay you a solid harvest.
Variants of finished whitewash from the store
If you do not have the time or desire to prepare whitewashing yourself, you can buy it already in finished form:
- Michurinka - dry whitewashing for bushes and trees, easily diluted with water and has antibacterial properties due to special additives,
- garden paint for trees - designed for painting fruit trees and shrubs, eco-friendly,
- Allianced tree paint - has a healing effect and well protects against insects,
- whitewash Block with lime and chalk - protects against sunburn and parasites by adding copper sulfate. Composition for garden whitewash can be purchased already in finished form
Cooking whitewash yourself
If you can not buy ready-made whitewash, you can cook it yourself. Most often used whitewash lime.
Lime is quicklime (chunks, limestone powder) and hydrated. To whiten the trees, use hydrated lime. The procedure for slaking quicklime is called so nonrandom: when adding water, a violent reaction occurs, during which heat is generated. Therefore, this should be done with caution, strictly following the rules that will help to avoid burns. You can buy ready-made slaked lime or make it yourself. The sequence of actions is as follows:
- Lime is poured into a clean deep container. Slaked lime is poured into a clean deep container.
- Fill it with cold water in a 1: 1 ratio.
- When they interact, a reaction will begin in which the mixture boils: it sizzles and heats up. The boiling process can last for an hour.
- After its completion, the contents are gently stirred with a wooden stick. Prepared hydrated lime is thoroughly stirred.
The composition of the mixture for whitewashing apple trees in the spring includes the following components:
- 2.5–3 kg of hydrated lime (fluff),
- 10 liters of water
- glue base - 200–300 g of flour paste.
Experienced gardeners are advised to add clay to the classical composition of the whitewash (the consistency should be similar to 20% sour cream), copper sulphate (500 g) and some milk - this makes the solution less fluid and more resistant on the surface.
The easiest way is to mix the dry ingredients first, add 2-3 kg of clay to the mixture, dilute with water to the desired state and mix thoroughly.
Whitewash water paint
When using water-based paint to whitewash trees, a dense film forms on the trunk, which is not washed away by rain.
Emulsion paint will protect trees from sunburn, but not from parasites.
The main disadvantage of such paint - it does not breathe. It can only be used on mature trees. The emulsion paint will protect well from frost and sun, but not from parasites. However, it is impossible to add copper sulphate to this paint, since in this case the paint darkens and the main purpose of coloring is not achieved.
Whitewashing an old apple tree in spring
The process consists of the following actions:
- Prepare a solution for whitewashing and let it brew for 2 hours. The solution prepared for the whitewashing should be brewed for 2 hours.
- Wear gloves to protect hands from getting solution on them. Whitewash need to wear gloves
- To whiten the apple trees begin with unprotected sections of the trunk. To whiten the apple trees begin with sections of the trunk that have been pruned or broken.
- Stir the solution regularly to maintain the desired consistency. It is necessary to mix whitewash to maintain the desired consistency.
- The solution is applied with a brush in a thin layer, departing 4–5 cm from the soil level and about 30 cm from the lower frame branch (in young apple trees only the trunk should be covered with whitewash, and in old ones it is allowed to paint the lower skeletal branches). Begin whitewash bottom.
If only apple has white trunks of young apple trees, then the old skeletal branches are also captured by old ones.
- Allow the first layer to dry. Stir the paint again and paint the apple with the second layer. After the first layer dries, the second layer can be applied.
Especially carefully you need to apply a layer of whitewash on the south side.
Since there are a lot of apple trees in our garden, moreover, almost all of them are not very young anymore, it takes a lot of time to whitewash them. We have to pretreat the stems, and only then whitewash. We white apple trees twice a year using a lime based solution with the addition of PVA glue, clay and milk for this purpose.
Whitewashing young apple trees in spring
Among the part of gardeners there is an opinion that whitewashing of young trees in the spring is not needed. Proponents of this position argue that the apple trees are painted only after the bark has got stronger and cracks will begin to form in it, in which insects can settle. This is a misconception. Burning is even more undesirable for a weak plant. So to paint young apple trees in white is necessary if you want to keep them healthy.
It is advisable to whitewash young apple trees with chalk based mixture
For young saplings under two years, spring whitewashing with chalk is more suitable, since lime can injure the tender bark of a tree.
Here is one of the universal recipes of "paint" using chalk:
- water - 2 l,
- chalk - 300 g,
- blue vitriol - 2 tablespoons,
- office glue - 200 g,
- clay - 200 g,
- 20-30 g of karbofos or urea.
All components are mixed to form a homogeneous mass and proceed to staining.
This composition is not only prevention against sunburn and pests, but also enhances immunity to various diseases. This is one of the universal recipes. By the way, it can also be used in the fall.
The bark of apple trees is their “skin”; it requires careful attitude and care. The environment affects it daily, and this impact is not only positive. And therefore, regular whitewashing will have a beneficial effect on the condition of the trees. Apple trees will enjoy a generous harvest and much less sick.
When to whitewash the garden
When to whiten the trees: in the fall or spring, it’s up to the landlord to decide. There are no single opinions on this score. However, in general, experts recommend to whiten the trees on the site 2-3 times a year:
- the main one is autumn (October - November),
- repeated - spring (end of February - beginning of March),
- optional (midsummer).
The most effective is the whitewashing of trees in the fall. However, if for any reason whitewashing of apple trees in the fall was missed, in the spring, as soon as the temperature permits, a treatment should be carried out. If a spring renewal procedure is carried out in the spring, then it can be done at a later date (March - April).
The third summer painting is optional, however, it is desirable if the summer is rainy and the composition is strongly washed off from the bark.
Fruit trees in the garden is desirable to whiten twice a year: autumn and spring.
- Whitewashing apples and pears can destroy a huge number of insects and fungi that live and infect the bark. This prevents the development of various diseases and contributes to a more abundant harvest.
- Autumnal whitewashing of apple trees will also protect them from burns, most of which are obtained by trees in early spring or winter. White trunks well reflect the sun's rays, which helps to protect the trees from overheating and cracking of the bark. In winter, due to temperature drops, the crust can crack, and the compound protects and prevents this danger.
- In addition, the autumn whitewash will scare away rodents, who in the winter are not averse to damaging the young trunks of seedlings.
Before whitewashing, the plants must be prepared for processing. Apple trees and other fruit trees cook in several stages.
The first stage - cleansing the trunk and branches. Cleansing is best done in wet weather. Moss, lichens and remnants of the old exfoliated bark are removed from the apple trees. To use any tools for this is not necessary, it is enough to remove what is cleaned by hand. To clean the cracks and grooves on the trunk, you can use a wooden stick. Everything cleared from the trees must be burned so that there are no accumulations of pests and diseases in the area.The cleaned material will be easy to collect if you lay a film or fabric under the trees before the procedure.
The second stage is the treatment of wounds. Disinfection of the bark requires that the weather is dry for 2–3 days, otherwise the result will be zero. Exists several processing options:
- a solution of copper-containing drugs: the treatment is carried out by fine spraying, creating a misty curtain around the tree trunk and allowing the composition to settle on the bark. The most popular substances are copper sulphate and Bordeaux mixture,
- ash or ash-soap extract, which is obtained from ashes dissolved in hot water and laundry soap. Processing is carried out with rags,
- Ash liquor, which is obtained from ash and water, the treatment is carried out and spraying and washing the apple trees.
When disinfecting the bark, be sure to take precautions: wear gloves and a respirator.
The third stage - wound repair. After scrubbing and plucking dry twigs and dead bark, there are wounds in the trees that need to be repaired. To do this, there are several putties:
- clay mash,
- garden pitch,
- garden paste "RunNet".
The composition also plays a significant role. What to choose depends on the purpose of whitewashing, on the time of processing the trees and the condition of the trees in the garden, and on personal preferences.
Lime based whitewash. Its main advantage is that it does not require independent cooking. However, in this its and minus - such compositions do not differ in durability. After a couple of spring rains from the whitewashing on the trunks will not remain a trace.
Paint (acrylic or water-based). Typically, such compounds enrich the antifungal drugs that create a film around the plant and prevent the development of various diseases. The main disadvantage of such whitewashing is that it does not breathe, therefore, it can be used only on mature trees.
Lime-based whitewash. The most popular and cheap formulations. It is better to whiten apple trees with such compositions in two layers, so that the composition holds better. However, despite its popularity, this mixture does not have a very high degree of protection. To improve the disinfecting properties of such mixtures add clay and manure. If there are already mature plants on the site, then glue is added to the mixture to enhance adhesion to the bark.
So what to use for whitewashing trees in the fall? The composition can be any, the main thing is the main three components:
- white dye
- viscous adhesive component
For whitewashing use a brush to fit the thickness of the apple trees in the garden. This allows more sparing paint on the trunk. If there is an opportunity not to save much, then you can use the spray gun.
Before the whitewash begins, the ground around the tree is slightly folded back and starts to whiten 3-4 cm below ground level. Subsequently, after drying the whitewash, the removed soil is returned to the place. Carefully stain not only the trunk of the tree, but also the base of the branches 20–30 cm higher than branches.
Usually whiten apple trees that have already begun to bear fruit. Younger apple trees are not recommended to touch, so as not to clog the pores and not disturb their growth.
It is also necessary to add that the work on the staining of the trunks is carried out in dry, calm weather in order for the whitewash to dry and consolidate.
Spring whitewashing of apple trees: rules and recommendations
Apple trees, like other fruit trees, require attention at any time of the year. It is easy to care for this culture, the main thing is to learn the basic rules and adhere to the recommendations for their implementation. One of the mandatory care procedures is whitewashing. Compliance with the terms and conditions during its implementation is a guarantee of the health of garden pets.
In specialized retail outlets there is a large assortment of garden whitewash, which is made on various bases and has all sorts of useful additives.
In the outlets you can find garden whitewashing for different purposes in the right amount.
The white-bead mixture can be made independently, if there are three main components on hand:
- Lime or chalk. These ingredients will give the mixture a whiteness.
- Adhesive composition. You can use clay, soap, carpentry, wallpaper or office glue. The presence of this component is necessary, because without it the mixture will not be able to hold onto the bark of the tree and will quickly be washed away by precipitation.
Glue elements should be added in a minimum quantity, because their overabundance can impede the access of air to the bark of the apple tree.
Lime is the material most commonly used to make a whitening mixture. Lime-based whitewashing will not only reflect the sun's rays, but will also perfectly cope with other tasks: burning out lichens, increasing the immunity of the apple tree to various diseases.
For garden whitewashing you need to use hydrated lime (fluff). If only quicklime is available, it must be quenched. To do this, lime powder is poured into a deep container and filled with water (1: 1). The combination of water and lime will cause a violent reaction, the mixture will sizzle, actively splashing.
The combination of quicklime with water causes a violent reaction
Note! Contact with unprotected skin may cause burns, therefore, an important condition for organizing the process is compliance with safety regulations.
The basic version of garden whitewash can be made according to the following recipe:
- 1 kg of pushons,
- 0.5 kg of clay
- 250 g of copper sulphate.
All components are mixed and dissolved in 5 liters of water. The result should be a homogeneous mass, resembling a thick cream. The indicated amount will be enough for 7–8 adult apples.
Ready whitewash should have the consistency of thick cream or sour cream
To protect the bark of young apple trees, it is recommended to use mixtures based on chalk, and not lime. Such whitewashing will not harm the thin bark of the seedling.
: better to whiten trees
Now more and more often water-based paint or acrylic paint is used as the main substance. These materials are water-based, so the whitening procedure is carried out only at positive air temperatures. It should not fall below +3 degrees during the entire drying time of the paint (approximately 24 hours).
Remember the difference between acrylic and water-based paint. As part of the latter there are no disinfecting additives.
Table: Comparison of the main components of the garden whitewash
Some useful tips:
- Instead of pure water, the mixture can be diluted with a decoction of herbs: chamomile, yarrow.
- If milk is added to the solution, it will give the composition a viscosity, make it less fluid.
- Cow manure, added to the garden whitewash, not only additionally feeds the tree, but also acts as an adhesive component.
Sealing wounds on the bark
Damage to the bark is sealed with special putties, such as:
Clay talker is the simplest and widely used tool. For its preparation, you can take clean clay or add to it lime, manure, copper sulfate. A simple putty can be made using the following components:
- clay - 500 g,
- mullein - 250 g,
- some chopped straw.
Everything is thoroughly mixed and diluted with water until thick cream. The resulting mixture smears cracks and other damage. This putty is quite plastic, does not crack and does not crumble.
Small wounds on the bark of an apple tree are usually covered with garden pitch, and large ones - with a clay mash
Another common tool - garden var. It can be purchased at the store or make yourself if the necessary ingredients are in stock:
- unsalted animal fat
To cook garden pitch at home, you need to do the following:
- Melt on low heat separately 1 part rosin and 2 parts beeswax.
- Then combine the ingredients, add 1 part of unsalted fat to them and heat until completely dissolved.
- The resulting composition is slightly cooled in cold water, and, without waiting for the final solidification of the mixture, form a lump.
: a recipe for a great garden war
Self-made or purchased garden pitch is recommended to be heated to plasticity before use.
Garden runner RanNet is also popular with gardeners. It disinfects and heals wounds, frost cracks and sunburn, damage to the bark by rodents or diseases.
RunNet putty paste adheres well to cuts, forming a durable coating
Whitewashing will be effective if previous operations are carried out qualitatively. The procedure itself is carried out in several stages:
- To protect the lower part of the trunk well, you first need to remove the ground around the tree and begin to whiten a few centimeters below ground level. The soil is returned back after drying the mixture.
- Next, you need to whiten the stem. It is necessary to paint very carefully, paying particular attention to cracks and dimples of the cortex.
It is necessary to whiten the barrel very carefully, painting over all the cracks and grooves
Do not forget about the fork and skeletal branches. They are coated with a mixture of 1/3 of the length. A layer of whitewash should not be very thick (no more than 2-3 mm), otherwise it will begin to peel off, crumble, and the procedure will have to be carried out again.
Skeletal branches of the apple tree cover with a mixture of 1/3 length
For whitewashing suitable dry, clear, windless day. In this weather, a layer of paint quickly dries and consolidates on the bark of the tree.
: whitewashing trees in spring
If you do not neglect the care of the bark of apple trees, carry out the whitening procedure correctly and systematically, then after a few years you can get a good result. Apple trees will be much less sick, their yield and longevity will increase.
- Lyudmila Bartasevich
- Print out
How to and whiten the apple in the spring
With the onset of the first warm spring days, gardeners rush into the garden. Spring affairs at the site begin long before the snow melts. Urgent work in the spring is whitewashing apples and other fruit trees, as well as sanitary or rejuvenating pruning. It is impossible to be late with these matters, because they affect the health of apple trees, which means - on the future harvest.
Why whiten trees
Whitewashing apple trees in the spring is the same mandatory procedure as in the fall. This operation is very important for the health of apples, because it is designed to perform one of the most important tasks - the protection of fruit trees:
- from sunburn,
- temperature difference
- various rodents,
- insect pests under the bark of an apple tree,
- fungal infections
- mosses and lichens,
- when peeling bark, with the appearance of cracks.
Important! An important point is the fact that the gloomy garden without foliage after whitewashing trees becomes very elegant.
It is very difficult to protect the tree from sudden changes in temperature during thaws, from scorching sun rays, and severe frosts. It is impossible to wrap mature trees in covering materials. Yes, and the harm from this thaw more than good. An excellent way out of this difficult situation is whitewashing apple trees.
White trunks of apple trees reflect the sun's rays, saving the bark from burns and tears during sudden temperature changes. The barrel before whitewashing is cleaned of the peeling bark, disinfect, close up wounds and whiten. These actions can significantly heal and treat the old bark.
The folds, cracks, roughness of the bark serve as an excellent winter haven for various insect larvae. Whitewashing itself is a protective composition. In addition, it blocks the access of oxygen, and the larvae die under the bark.
Fungal pathogens, overgrown mosses and lichens die under the influence of drugs that make up the whitewash.
What to whiten the apple
Nowadays, in garden shops, chalk and lime for whitewash are sold very inexpensively. In addition, many companies produce ready-made whitewash, packed in convenient buckets. Such compositions for whitewashing are much more expensive, but ease of use attracts many gardeners.
However, you must carefully read the composition of the finished whitewash. It is necessary to clarify which adhesive substance is included in its composition. To whitewash kept longer and not washed off, manufacturers often add too many adhesive substances. This clogs the vessels of the tree, which prevents him from breathing.
Some gardeners believe that trees can be whitened with water-based paint. But this is also not the best option for wood because of the durable film that paint forms.
It is better to use paint own cooking. There are many compositions: from very simple to fairly complex. Volumes in recipes are indicated for 10 liters of water:
- 3 kg of lime - fluff, 1.5 kg of clay,
- 2.5 kg of chalk, 10 tbsp. l flour paste or soap,
- 2 kg of freshly sour lime, 1 kg of clay (better than white), 300 g of copper sulphate, 100 g of soap shavings, 100 g of ground bitter pepper,
- half a bucket of lime - fluff, 0.7 l of milk, 100 g of wood glue, 100 g of vitriol,
- 2 kg of hydrated lime, 1.5 kg of oily clay, 200 g of copper sulfate, a shovel of cow manure.
Important! Whitewashing of any composition must be white.
Lime gives whitewash the desired whiteness and disinfects the surface, clay, soap, milk, glue are responsible for adhesion of the solution, copper sulfate or manure - disinfects the surface and destroys spores, bitter pepper dares rodents.
Cold water is used to extinguish lime in a 2: 1 ratio, the lime is poured into the water in small portions, the mixture should be left to stand for 24 hours. Copper sulfate for whitewashing is also separately bred in a small amount of hot water.
Important! When preparing to whiten an apple tree, be sure to protect your face with a respirator and goggles, hands with gloves and long-sleeved clothing.
Before you begin to paint, you must thoroughly clean the trunk of the old flaky bark. For processing trunks using metal brushes, spatulas or wooden scrapers. At the same time, besides peeling bark, mosses and lichens are removed. To make it easier to do, you can treat it with 5% of copper sulphate before cleaning the barrel.
When cleaning the bark around the apple tree spreads oilcloth. All crumbling bark is burned, because there are a lot of larvae and testicles of insects on it.
After inspecting the trunk and skeletal branches, it is necessary to find all the wounds and fissures, hollows and gums, and clean it with a knife to healthy tissue. The peeled wounds which have dried up within several hours will cover up with suitable putty:
- purchased garden pitch,
- homemade garden pitch (150 g of rosin, 250 g of beeswax melt into a water bath and add 50 g of unsalted fat there),
- clay mash (mix in equal parts clay, manure, lime or copper sulfate),
- purchase garden paste, which consists of humates.
The whitening procedure begins from the bottom and moves upwards, painting the branches to the height of growth. Work should be done during the day, in dry weather. Ideal when the whitewash falls flat and does not flow. The bark is stained all over, painting over all the ledges and depressions.
Whitening should be in dry weather, so that the lime mortar can dry out and stick to the surface of the apple tree. If it immediately rains after whitewashing, the solution will simply be washed off.
Important! The paint is applied in a thin layer so that it does not interfere with the bark breathing.
If the mixture is thick, then it is very easy to dilute it with water. Lime or clay is added to a too thin solution.
Be sure to whiten shtamb and lower skeletal boughs on 1/3 of their length. Very often, apple trees begin to subside in the forks of thick skeletal branches, where a large amount of exfoliated old bark and water gather. Therefore, it is recommended to especially thoroughly clean such places with a brush. And whitewash applied on the trunk and branches, capturing the area as high as possible.
Apple seedlings under 5 years of age whitening is not recommended. The whitewash clogs the pores in the young bark, causing gas exchange to deteriorate. From this tree grow worse, thickening of the trunk slows down.
To protect seedlings from frost and rodents, they use wrapping of boils with heaters, paper, roofing felt, burlap, spruce branches. If, however, there is nothing to cover, then you can whitewash the stems, using chalk in the solution, instead of lime.
How is whitewashing of apple trees in spring: what is whitewash, why is it needed and when should it be done
In order for apple trees to take root well on your site and develop properly, they need special care. These special procedures include whitewashing apple trees in the garden. This is a simple procedure, but in order to perform it correctly, you need to have certain knowledge and skills. Now let's look at all this in detail.
We dedicate this article to these points:
- when to whitewash,
- spring whitewashing of apple trees,
- winter whitewash apple.
- popular recipes composition for whitewashing.
When should whitewash be done?
According to the rules, fruit growers should be whitened. at least once a year. But the ideal option would be to perform this procedure twice a year. Gardeners usually do this in the spring and autumn, and each of these procedures performs its specific functions. If the composition is prepared incorrectly, the paint will quickly wear off the wood and will have to whitewash.
Winter whitewashing apple trees
This procedure has a completely different mission. In the autumn it is carried out in order to destroy the pests that live in the bark. Often very such insects are arranged for wintering in the bark of trees. Whitewashing apple trees contributes destroy various bugs. The composition has the ability to burn eggs and pupae of insects.
It is especially important to carry out this procedure in the area where there may be winter thaws. For example, in the southern edges, the shtams are not warmed for winter, therefore it is recommended to whitewash the trees.
In winter, it is not customary to perform this procedure with trees. But if we are talking about an apple orchard located in the southern strip, then this manipulation can be carried out in the winter, moreover, if you forgot to do this in the fall.
Whitening plants preferably on a dry day in order that the composition had time to dry. If you do this on an overcast day, your composition may simply be washed away by the rain.
If you wish not to do this on your own, you can easily turn to specialists who will be happy to help you with this operation. In addition, in addition, they can perform other procedures aimed at caring for trees. In particular, pruning, spraying, planting, feeding trees and much more.
Popular recipes for whitewash
As noted above, whitewashing is a necessary and proper procedure for apple trees. But what components will be included in the composition, it already depends on what mission it will carry whitewash. It will be the destruction of harmful insects or it will be the prevention of sunburn. let's consider a few recipes whitening compounds for trees.
Very often gardening lovers choose to whitewash apple lime. And it is not surprising, because the cost of this material is very affordable.
But as you know, lime does not have such features as adhesion and good viscosity, therefore, in order to conveniently apply a solution to wood, either clay or milk is added to it. This makes the composition more viscous. But not everyone believes that it is necessary.
For example, workers of housing and communal services save money and paint the stumps of trees with a practically transparent liquid. But in this case, obtaining full protection is unlikely. Most likely, this procedure will have only an aesthetic function.
If you love your trees and want to properly care for them, then the composition must be more thick and viscous. This is necessary so that the bark of the trees is covered over a thick layer of composition, and accordingly it will be erased much slower.
If you add milk in lime, then it is necessary to carry out staining at least twice. But the addition of clay in the composition will eliminate the need to apply whitewash several times and it will be quite enough to process the bark of the tree once.
If the operation is carried out without additional additives, using only lime, then it will be necessary to whiten the apple tree trunks at least five times, and maybe more, until the desired layer thickness is reached.
Now we describe a couple of recipes. This composition will be relevant if you want to protect the trees from sunburn. For this you will need:
- lime - 250-300 grams,
- PVA glue - about two tablespoons. But if it is not at hand, then 0.5 tablespoon of milk will replace it,
- water - 2, 2.5 liters.
All of the above ingredients must be mixed until a homogeneous mass. If desired and possible, you can add 1 tablespoon of copper sulfate and 1 teaspoon of DDT powder. This will help protect your trees from various diseases.
If you need whitewash young treesit is better to use chalk instead of lime. In this case, the prerequisite will be the addition of fungicides - this is necessary to protect against pests and to prevent possible diseases. But lime is not recommended for use in the early years of the tree because of the possibility of injury.
And the composition for autumn application on apples is already prepared differently. The mission of this whitewash is the destruction of insects and protection from putrid diseases. For the preparation we need:
- Water - 2-2.5 liters, but the ideal amount would be the same amount of infusion of chamomile or tobacco,
- Copper sulphate or iron sulphate - 2 tablespoons,
- A thickener in the form of a mixture of PVA and PVA glue dispersions in a ratio of 1: 1 + 0.5-1 tablespoon,
- In order to provide protection from various rodents, you can add a small amount of creolin or a couple drops of "Knockdown."
How to carry out the whitewash procedure?
It is quite simple. In order to whiten a tree trunk, the process should be divided into two stages: preparation and coloring.
To prepare the tree for coloring, you need to clear the trunk from the old bark. For this you need use a spatula. After this stripping, the tree trunk must be “brushed out” a little with a brush.
Coloring is carried out with a brush. The main rule is that the composition is applied evenly over the surface of the barrel. Both children and adults can easily cope with this task. So you can add to this and your kids.
When is it better to whiten
To whiten the apple should be at least several times a year. This is due to the simple reason that most often the paint is washed off in a few months, and without it the tree is left without protection. When do you need to whiten the trees? In fact, to date, farmers have not reached a consensus. According to some results, early spring whitewashing can inhibit the growth of young trees, and also partially leads to their death. Also, such experts insist that it is not necessary to whiten a tree in the spring, because it has no effect.
On the other hand, counter-arguments are being advanced in favor of spring painting. So, it is necessary to hold spring whitewashing - with temperature drops that still accompany the woken up tree in the spring, the bark may become covered with cracks. Such violations sooner or later lead to infection by a wide range of pathogens.
To hold the first whitewash is better in March. The deadline is April. This is the most vulnerable time for trees, in which they need special protection. Pay special attention to the treatment of old trees and young apple trees. The former tend to disrupt the integrity of the cortex, the latter are often more susceptible to infections.
The dates of the second whitewash are within April - September. In fact, it is necessary to whiten when old paint is washed off from tree trunks. Whitewash is usually washed off within two to four months, depending on their quality.
The composition of whitewash can vary depending on what goal you want to achieve it. There are compounds that protect trees from pathogens and pests, others are designed to protect against burns. Third mixtures affect the resistance of plants and can stimulate their immunity.
Doing this procedure with their own hands, people often use lime. She whitewashed apple trees to keep the bark from overheating. Lime also has a weak antibiotic effect. However, most often lime is washed off rather quickly, and attentive gardeners make up to four whitewash per season. In other formulations, the same lime is often used as a coloring matter. However, depending on the composition there are added impurities of certain active substances.
Currently, water-based paints are popular. They cover the tree trunk more densely. Also gardeners noted that this paint was not washed off even under the direct pressure of water.
Here are some good whitewash recipes for apples of different ages.
In this structure, you can add drops of rodents "Knockdown".
From burns, you can use another recipe:
Apple trees should be whitewashed with a layer of at least 3 millimeters.
Is it possible to paint the barrel without pre-treatment? Can. But this whitening efficiency will drop significantly. Before starting work, get rid of unnecessary growths on the bark, cut off too insensitive, cork areas. Treat the resulting wounds with a special antiseptic or copper sulfate.
Prepare the mother liquor. Carefully and carefully paint the tree, if necessary, make two or three repetitions. Whitewashing should rise to the so-called green cone - the vegetating parts of the green plant. Some paint the trunk just below, but this is considered a blunder. Paint both the root paws and the protruding parts of the roots above the ground.
How to whiten is a simple question. It is necessary to use a wide brush or even a special spray gun to evenly paint on the wood. What color should the painted part be in the end? Equally saturated white. Now you know when to whiten an apple tree and how to do it right.