In mid-May, one of the main decorations of the flower bed is the elegant and unpretentious Baling-vessels, or Trollyuses. In different regions for different types of bathing suits there are their own names: kupava, bells, frying, lights, siberian rose, rolls, beaters, coachman grass and so on. Flower growers often call the bathing place a trollyus, which is an adaptation of its Latin name.
Bathing-place (Trollius) is a genus of perennial plants of the Buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). The bathing bowl is closest to the marigold, another kind of buttercups, which is able to grow right in the water.
In total there are about 30 types of bathing suits, common in Eurasia and North America. In our territory, there are about 20 species that are found mainly in Siberia and the Far East, some of which grow in the European part.
Features of growing frying (Asian bathing) in the garden
Bright flowers with the interesting name "bathhouse" are very popular in flowerbeds, in landscape design.
There are many popular names for this plant - kupava, kupavnitsa, kupavka, frying, lights, siberian rose, they all characterize the flower to one degree or another.
The connection of a flower with bathing and ponds is easily explained by the fact that it grows predominantly on moist soils near water bodies, and the rest describe the beauty of the plant, which can be compared to fire due to bright yellow and orange flowers.
Botanical description and distribution
Asian swimsuit - a perennial herbaceous plant, if we touch upon its botanical description in more detail, then it is a rhizomatous flower from the genus of the Butterica family bathing suits. It has one or several peduncles 10–80 cm high. The stem is smooth, upright. There are basal and stem leaves. The first are located on long roots, finger-separated with rhombic patterns.
The upper leaves are very similar to the root, to the top of the stem, they become smaller. The flowers are quite large (up to 6 cm in diameter), looks like buttercups, red-orange in color. Calyx spherical shape, consists of 10-25 elliptical sepals. Flowering lasts about a month, from the end of May. The species is distributed in Central Asia, Mongolia, Siberia and the Urals. It grows in wet meadows, in the highlands, in forest glades near water bodies. It looks particularly impressive in the meadows, forming carpets of flowers resembling bright lights.
Lighting on the site
For landing bathing suit as a sunny place, and the site in partial shade. The only thing you need to remember is too lighted area, it will bloom earlier, but the flowering period will be shorter than in the shade.
Since in natural conditions swimsuits, s grow in soils far from ideal, they have no special requirements for the composition of the soil. It is very important that the land is well drained, as the flowers do not tolerate drought. Landing on loose, fertile, moderately sour soil will be ideal. High humus content is welcomed. When planting on sandy areas require additional feeding.
Breeding plant seed and rhizome division. In the natural environment, it grows very quickly on its own, and in culture it also does not cause trouble.
Seeds must be sown immediately after ripening or before winter - in this case, the seedlings will appear in the spring. It is imperative to provide good hydration. Then the seedlings should be dive with an interval of 5-10 cm. It is necessary to give the plant the opportunity to get stronger before planting on a flower bed. It is best to transplant a swimsuit to a permanent habitat next spring. "Lights" will bloom in the second year after sowing.
Vegetative breeding method is more popular. By dividing the queen plant in spring or early autumn, planting is much easier. It is necessary to dig up the root, rinse and divide with an knife with an arbitrary number of parts. Then prepare a hole 40 cm deep and place a seedling there.
Planting should be done at a distance of 40-50 cm. The leaves should be cut, and new ones will appear two weeks later. The division of the curtain should be done with mature, matured plants that are more than 5 years old.
Asian bathing care
It is necessary to regularly loosen the soil around the plant, as well as weed weeds.
it the most important thing in care for moisture-loving flower. Particular attention should be paid to young "lights", the plant needs regular abundant watering during the active growing season, that is, from May to June.
Before planting, compost or manure must be applied to the soil at the rate of 3 buckets per square meter. In the spring you need to do a nitrogen fertilizer or make organic or mineral fertilizers.
Both planting and transplanting plants are best done in spring or autumn. The swimsuit is removed from the soil, washed the root system, if necessary, divide it into equal parts, and then planted in another place. Without a transplant, a plant can grow up to 10 years, and after this period it is necessary to divide the curtain.
Resistance to pests and diseases
"Hot" is enough are resistant to pests, but in order to protect the plant 100%, it is necessary to provide him with timely top dressing, and in early spring spray it with Epin solution. To do this, in one liter of water diluted 10 drops of the substance. In order for the plant not to suffer from fungal diseases, at the end of the growing season it is necessary to remove the withered foliage.
The bathing bowl is irreplaceable when creating bright colorful flower beds and flower beds on the site. The plant is strikingly unpretentious, but it will add a “spark” even to the most ordinary garden plot.
Distribution in nature and features of cultivation as a cultivated plant
In nature, the flower is found in places where there is enough moisture
Also known as kupavka, siberian rose, frying and trollius. Scandinavian legends say that this plant because of its beauty was popular with fabulous forest dwellers - trolls. The Slavs loved it no less and called it a "cupola" because it is most often found near ponds and rivers.
There is a legend that the plant appeared thanks
European or Asian? Differences in the photo
The bathing ground is found in water bodies, on the edge of forests, in meadows and in forest glades. In nature, there are more than 20 of its varieties, but only some of them are used as garden plants. The most common are European and Asian. You can distinguish them by the color of flowers and the degree of opening of the sepals. The European flowers are lemon-yellow, and the Asian - orange terry. Asian sepals are more disclosed.
European view (left) and Asian view (right)
The plant propagation halo covers Central Asia, Eastern Europe, the Polar Urals and Western Siberia. Thus, it easily adapts to almost any climate and endures cold winters with firmness.
On the territory of a suburban or suburban area, it can be located near an artificial reservoir, on an alpine slide, flowerbed or in a rose garden (as one of its alternative names is “Siberian rose”).
The flowering period is at the end of May. It lasts from 1 to 2 months.
Popular varieties for Russian gardens
The following varieties are considered the most attractive for Russian gardens:
- Orange Glob - different large saturated orange flowers with compact sepals.
Bathtub Orange Globe blooms in May and June for a month
Swimsuit Orange Princess is resistant to diseases and has high winter hardiness
Swimsuit Fire Globe disbanded at the end of May
Alabaster bath can bloom twice per season in warm regions
Bathing suit Elista of All - the earliest variety that blooms in early May
Growing from seedlings
Seedlings should be protected from waterlogging or drought.
For growth it is necessary:
- Choose a suitable place. It should be illuminated by diffused light. Avoid direct sunlight.. The best place for these purposes is a plot in the shade of a house, a tree or a tall ornamental plant, preferably near a pond.
- Land in the ground. Planting seedlings should be strictly in wet soil, as in dry soil, it will die. It should be noted that the swimsuit is also not adapted to the wet and marshy areas. Planting seedlings should be made in early August, so that the plant has time to get stronger before the onset of cold weather, in the evening or an overcast day. The optimum temperature is 20–25 ° C. The distance between the specimens should be 50 cm.
- Deepen the root neck by 2 cm. To optimize the rooting process, it is necessary to cut the leaves.
Cultivation of seeds in open ground
Many types of swimsuit are listed in the Red Book, so it’s safer to purchase seeds by mail.
To grow a swimsuit from seed should:
- Collect the seeds. They ripen in autumn.
- Sow them in open ground in November to ensure long stratification of seeds. Sowing should be done in loose, breathable soil. To do this, you can mix 2 parts of peat and earth and 1 part of sand.
- Abundantly water the emerged shoots and protect from overheating in direct sunlight.
- After the appearance of full leaves sprouts spread out in open ground at a distance of 10 cm between them.
- A year later, grown plants transplanted to a permanent place. Replace only once in 10 years.
Division and transplantation of the mother plant
Adult swimsuit can be propagated vegetatively. For this you need:
- In early autumn, dig up the plant.
- Divide it into delenki with roots and shoots,
- Drop them at least 50 cm apart.
It is possible to propagate the swimsuit in the spring, but this must be done before flowering.
The laziest can use the method of grafting.
Leopard garden varieties are beautifully combined with less bright neighbors.
In order for the plant to enjoy its numerous flowers, it is necessary to follow the rules of caring for it and timely deal with infrequent diseases.
How to care during growth and flowering
The bathhouse needs abundant watering. However, it is necessary to ensure that the water does not stagnate, because it will lead to the decay of the plant. Water should be separated and heated by the sun. For this you can install a rainwater collection tank in a sunny place.
By virtue of its unpretentiousness, the plant does not need a large amount of fertilizer. They should be made only before the flowering period or to support its health, if it is weakened. Complex organic fertilizers, humus and peat are used.
Solutions of the nutritional complexes of Nitrophoska and Agricola, as well as urea, are used as feed. To prepare the solution, a teaspoonful of the substance is dissolved in a bucket of water.
Preparing for the winter
Fern will be a great participant in the tandem with low-growing varieties of the bathing suit.
Due to its high resistance to cold, the plant does not need shelter. In the autumn, after the leaves die off, it should be cut off, leaving only short petioles 2-3 cm long.
Problems and solutions
A distinctive feature of the swimsuit is its high immunity to disease. It is also not affected by pests due to its toxicity. The main problem of the plant is the fungus. To avoid it, it is necessary to observe the mode of watering and timely trim the dried shoots. If it does appear, you should immediately remove and burn the damaged parts of the swimsuit, process the plant and its soil with a solution of a fungicide, balance its watering and additionally fertilize it to increase its immunity.
Where is better and how to plant a bathing suit
For proper planting of swimsuits, prepare a suitable place in the garden. Best of all frying grow in moist areas in partial shade. When these plants are planted in the bright sun, the flowers will bloom faster, and the color of the petals will be less bright.
Wet well-drained soil - quite suitable for these flowers. Can not stand frying only poor sandy and dry soil. If you plan to plant a bath, and your land is not rich in organic matter, add peat with humus to the soil (5-6 kg per 1 sq. M)
How to grow swimsuits from seed
The easiest way for flower growers to plant bathing rhizomes, but in the absence of those, you can propagate this plant with seeds. Swimsuits grow slowly, so the planting of seeds for seedlings should begin in January. For the next couple of months, provide young plants with a low temperature - only 2-4 degrees Celsius.
With the advent of the first leaves, pick the plants. In the first year, young bathing houses do not bloom, so you can grow them on a seedling bed, and at the end of August, plant them in a regular place in a flower garden or near a pond.
Between plants when planting observe distances of 30-40 cm.
Reproduction of swimsuits by dividing the bush
The most common method of breeding fry - the division of the bush. Old bushes are carefully dug out of the ground and divided into separate plots, each of which should have 3-4 buds. Such young plots will give a decent bush for the year.
The most important thing in dividing and transplanting is not to overdry the roots, because they are very tender in fries.
Repotting swimsuits is better to do at the end of the summer. At this time, the plant enters a state of rest and will transfer the transplant more easily.
Care for bathing suits
Caring for swimsuits quite simple. Flowers should be time to loosen, weed, weed and watered. It is possible to preserve moisture to mulch plants with peat. It is also recommended to make a bedding rich in organic soil to the roots of hot.
Trimming peduncles on swimsuits can cause re-flowering of these plants. But in the winter to cover the bathing is not worth it. This flower tolerates cold weather.
Top dressing of bathing suits is carried out as for other flowers in the earliest terms in the spring before the beginning of flowering, and then in the fall.
The bush of the bathing suits remains decorative throughout the year, and with the onset of frost dies. The leaves are cut leaving 2-3 cm stalk above the ground. A lower cut can lead to freezing of the buds and poor flowering next year.
In Russia and in the near abroad, quite a lot of types of bathing places are grown - nineteen types and seven varieties. These include:
- European bath,
- bathing highest,
- bathing half open
- Asian swimsuit
- Altai bath,
- bathing dzhungarskaya.
As well as lilac swimsuit, stemless swimsuit, dwarf swimsuit, Chinese swimsuit, large-flowering swimsuit, Ledebour swimsuit, Reeder swimsuit, lovely swimsuit, etc.
Each species has its own characteristics.
Swimsuit in landscape design or where to put the frying?
Moisture-loving swimsuits will look great near the pond. In combination with stones and low creeping plants, the swimsuit looks amazing. Can swim bathing in the neighborhood and with high perennial flowers. The main thing is that everyone has enough space and food.
By the way, frying can be used for forcing.
Some types of bathing
In our northern forests near water, in wet meadows lives European swimsuit (Trollius europaeus). The flowers in her form resemble a bell (hence the popular name - "bells").
At the beginning of flowering, they are a brilliant lemon-lemon ball of tightly closed sepals, which gradually move apart, and then in the center you can see a thick bundle of nectaries interspersed with stamens.
A curious feature: the role of petals in the bathing bowl is played by the sepals, and the real petals turned into small tails - nectaries, attracting insects.
At the base of the plant there is a large basal rosette of beautiful finger-cut leaves on long petioles. From its center upward by 50 cm, or even more, stands a straight strong stalk, crowned with a beautiful flower.
From the short branched rhizomes of the swimsuit grow large numerous roots.
In the fry - Asian swimsuit (Trollius asiaticus), widespread in our gardens, the flower is bright orange, its sepals are apart and in the middle the nectaries and stamens are also clearly visible.
Popular and larger Chinese bathing suit (Trollius chinensis) up to 120 cm high with even more unfolded flowers. Its sepals are yellowish-golden, broadly oval. Have lower Ledebour baths (Trollius ledebourii), no more than 80 cm in height, flowers yellow in diameter up to 8 cm.
Also widespread cultural bathing (Trollius × cultorum), the numerous forms and varieties of which, predominantly with orange and intense orange flowers, represent various hybrid varieties of the Asian swimsuit, European swimsuit, and Chinese swimsuit.
Popular varieties of swimwear
Some of the hybrids of cultural bathing have large, original-shaped flowers. So grade Maygold combines signs of both frying and bells.
Flower variety Orange ball - this is really a closed bowl of sepals, through the small hole in the center of it the inner content of an elegant flower is visible.
Variety of bathing Orange queen distinguishes the grace of tall peduncles with orange flowers and numerous luminous stamens.
Care for a bathing suit
Large bathing suits do not require, they are unpretentious. On humus-rich soils grow well. You can plant bushes throughout the summer, until the end of August. First, prepare a place for planting, taking into account the fact that the plants should be located at least 20 cm apart.
Then dig a bush, which intend to split into several parts. Shake the roots of the swimsuit, rinse in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. With a sharp knife or pruning shear, divide the rhizome into several parts, respectively, of the daughter rosettes; sprinkle the cut points with ashes.
Plant on a prepared seat, water well, so that the roots are strengthened.
Bathing suits are decorative and in the summer, after flowering. When the elegant sepals fall off, remain first green, and then drying brown carpets, in the middle of which mature seeds that have good germination.
They can be sown both in boxes and in open ground. Plants will not bloom the third year. But keep in mind that swimsuits are pereopolyat easily. And if several varieties grow next to you, then you can get a new hybrid, which certainly will not have the qualities of a variety.
To maintain varietal quality, cover some flowers with a paper cap during flowering.
Description of the plant and its advantages
The Chinese bathing ground belongs to the herbaceous plants of the buttercup family. This is a perennial shrub with a well-developed root system. Under natural conditions, it grows in the Far East, in China and in Japan.
This large-flowered species differs from other varieties in its height and flowering period. The average size of an adult plant is 80-100 cm, diameter 50-70 cm. Flowering of this variety occurs a month later than other species. It starts at the end of June and lasts 35-45 days.
The above-ground part of the Chinese bath is well developed. The shrub consists of many sturdy, erect stems.
Shoots covered with multiple leaves. Blade leaf plate. Color saturated green. The arrangement of the leaves on the stem is uniform. The size of the leaf plate gradually decreases towards the top of the shoot.
A bright orange flower is located at the top of the stem. It has an open form. The flower is large, with an average diameter of 5 cm. It consists of a perianth in the form of a corolla with multiple sepals. After flowering, they fall off.
Corolla petals have the shape of a large nectary. Their length exceeds the length of the petal.
After flowering, the fruit is formed in the form of a leaflet with a spout, which opens along the inner seam. Multiple leaflets collected in spherical stems. The seeds are dense, oval-shaped, black in color and light gloss.
In addition to the attractive appearance, there are other advantages bathing Chinese:
- High frost and winter hardiness
- Does not require special conditions for growing
- Grows in one place for at least seven years
- It has a moderate degree of growth
- Breeds in different ways
- The size of the flower, its color and the brightness of its color
- It is highly resistant to diseases and pests.
Bathing suit is characterized by unpretentious care. Therefore, gardeners often plant several bushes or spend zoning the site forming a hedge.
Conditions and landing scheme
It is easy to care for this crop if you plant it in the most appropriate conditions. For a permanent place of growth, it is desirable to choose a plot on the south side.
Free access to sunlight and daylight allows the bush to grow evenly and bloom quickly.
The Chinese bathing pot also grows well in shaded places, but with such a planting, the bush stems can dramatically stretch, and the number of flowers is much smaller.
The soil should be light and loose with good permeability and aeration. For the cultivation of this culture are suitable for almost all types of soil, except for dry sand.
When selecting a site, it is necessary to take into account that the development of the flower is also affected by the nutritional composition of the soil.
Therefore, if the soil is not fertile enough, continuous artificial enrichment with complex feedings will be required. Acidity neutral or alkaline.
Do not allow waterlogging or stagnation of water under the bush. Therefore, it is recommended to plant a swimsuit in the area where the groundwater level is not closer than one meter or to form raised beds.
If several bushes are planted, the following distances should be observed: 0.5 m between bushes, 0.7 m between rows. When landing near a transparent hedge, they retreat 0.6 m from it.
If the fence is closed, the bushes are planted at a distance of 0.8 m from it.
Such a planting scheme not only allows the plant to freely develop and take on its natural form, but also facilitates access to each bush during care.
If the place is the chosen place for the Chinese bathing place is selected in accordance with all the recommendations, the plant can grow on it for 10 years. In this case, over time, the appearance of the aerial parts, the density of the bush, the period and the luxuriance of flowering do not change.
How to care for a bush
Bathing vessel is rather plastic flower culture, which does not require special agrotechnical measures. The basic care of the Chinese bathing bowl is similar to that of other herbaceous garden plants. It includes:
- Top dressing
- Winter preparation
- Preventive treatment against diseases and harmful insects
Care of the bush is carried out during the entire growing season, which lasts from early spring until late autumn.
For the development of a healthy plant, it is recommended to systematically pour a nutritious soil mixture under a bush. Mineral and organic supplements are also used. Fertilizers are applied to the soil by watering or in the form of dry granules.
For this plant, it is recommended to use urea or the drug Agricola. Nutrient solution is prepared from 10 liters of pure water and a teaspoon of powder. Fertilization is carried out in early spring, before bud break and before flowering.
A special place in the care of the Chinese swimsuit is given irrigation. Despite the fact that this culture is moisture-loving, it does not tolerate the over-wetting of the soil. The soil around the bush should be constantly wet, while it is impossible to prevent stagnant water.
This will lead to the death of the plant. Maintaining the required level of soil moisture is the main difficulty in growing Chinese swimsuit on open ground. But this moment does not reduce its popularity among gardeners.
Experts recommend using a drip irrigation system for watering the bushes and mulching the hole under the bush with peat or sawdust.
For secondary flowering, pruning of faded flower stalks is mandatory. The bush is completely cut at the end of October when the leaves die. At the same time the stalks are left 3-5 cm high.
The root system of the bathing bush is located in the upper layer of the soil. Therefore, it is important to keep the area under the bush clean.
All weeds are removed manually, it does not allow to damage multiple roots. Also loosening the soil. Its depth varies between 3-5 cm.
Preparing for the winter swimsuit Chinese is usually not carried out. This is a winter-hardy plant. But in regions with a harsh climate, you can play it safe and cover the bush with wood shavings or needles with a layer of about 10 cm.
Almost always, the owners of the swimsuit are trying to breed as many bushes as possible on their plot. For flower propagation, you can use seeds and cuttings. But an easier way is transplanting the layering. It can be carried out in any growing season. With this reproduction, the plant quickly takes root and in the second year begins to bloom.
While watching the video you will learn about the bathing.
The Chinese bathing ground is a decorative type of plants that are used in the preparation of bright flowerbeds. This species has a rich sunny color of flowers that will bring a bright touch to any landscape design.
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In Russia, there are about 20 species of bathing. In the gardens, they grow into large bushes with abundant fragrant yellow or orange flowers on straight stems up to 60–70 cm. The short rhizome of the bathing suits has a powerful bunch of dense cord-shaped roots.
Fig.1. European swimsuit
European swimsuit occurs on the edges of mixed forests, forest glades and meadows. In flower beds with good care can grow up to 60-70 cm (Fig. 1). It blooms in June for 4-5 weeks. Its flowers are terry, spherical, pale lemon, with orange middle, up to 5 cm in diameter, weak-lipped.
Fig. 2. Asian swimsuit (Trollius asiaticus)
Asian swimsuit - This is a perennial plant up to 70 cm in height. It blooms from mid-May to mid-June (Fig. 2). Its flowers are bright orange, solitary, on long peduncles, up to 7–8 cm in diameter, very beautiful.
Chinese bath with bright orange flowers it attracts with its late flowering - since the end of June, when other species have already finished flowering.
Fig.4. Ledebour bath
Ledebour bath it looks like a Chinese bathing bowl, but significantly higher (100–120 cm), and its open orange flowers are larger, up to 8 cm in diameter. It blooms from late June to mid-July.
Fig.5. Bathing dwarf
Bathing dwarf (T. pumilus) - This is a bushy plant, 15–30 cm tall, with dark green long-petioled, finely toothed leaves, collected in a rosette, from the center of which grow numerous, usually unbranched stems, each of which carries one large golden-yellow, bright flower at the end . This swimsuit has wide, flat flowers that look like a large buttercup. The plant blooms in May and June, sometimes in July.
There are also white-flowered species of bathing - bathing and bathing and lilac bathing. In addition, today received a lot of garden forms of bathing with large flowers.
Bright spherical flowers of some swimsuits reach a diameter of 7 cm, their faint pleasant aroma resembles the smell of mandarin. They make up a wonderful contrast to the green foliage, so they look great against the background of a lush cap of basal leaves.
Features of growing in the garden
Swimsuits grow well in semi-dark places. Simple swimmers in culture love moisture, so they grow beautifully on the damp shore of a garden pond. They are sun-loving, winter-hardy (they winter without shelter).
In the garden, bathing grooms are given a sunny or half-shaded place with rich moist soil, bringing peat or compost into the planting hole. The most favorable for the cultivation of swimsuits are light or medium loamy, structural, with a high content of soil humus.
Swimsuits grow well on rich soils that are light in texture and close to neutral in acidity. However, swimsuits grow on the soils of poor humus. They benefit from a mixture of leafy land with peat and sand.
In most ornamental species of bathing flowers, flowers appear in late spring - early summer, but some bloom much later. The height and time of flowering of bathing suits depends on the type and variety.
The bathing chamber is propagated mainly by dividing the bush. The division and planting of bushes are made in early spring or at the end of August. When planting, the root collar is buried by 2 cm. The distance between plants is 30–40 cm. The bathing suit can also be propagated by cuttings from young ground shoots that appear in spring and from summer rosettes with a piece of underground stem.
Easy to grow a swimsuit and out of seed. To do this, freshly harvested seeds are sown at the end of September or at the beginning of October, and at the beginning of May of next year there will be friendly shoots. Seedlings are planted on a permanent place since the spring of the second year.
Seeds of swimsuits are small, quickly lose their germination, so they are sown in the ground immediately after harvest in the fall. When spring sown on seedlings, they must be stratified for 3-4 months at a temperature of 2-4 ° C.
The swimsuits multiply well by self-sowing (the fruit is a spiral multiple leaf), seedlings appear in the spring and grow very slowly, in late August-early September they are planted in a permanent place. Seedlings bloom in the second year, but abundant flowering begins in the third year of life. To transplant swimsuits are sensitive and bloom only in the second year.
Swimsuit in landscape design
Swimsuits look great in mixborders, in groups on lawns, near trees and shrubs. But swimsuits combined with stone are especially good: short perennials in the foreground, swimsuits behind them, and tall ones in the background, later flowering perennials with leaves that are decorative in shape and color.
Swimsuits are also used for forcing. One of the valuable properties of swimsuits is the ability to create unique, long-fading bouquets. Decorative bouquet until all buds wither, complete European bathing, which is used for forcing in the room and the greenhouse.
Flower bathing: general information
The plant is a charming perennial with yellow-orange buds. It decorates urban landscapes, gardens and country beds with the onset of summer. It is successfully used for flower compositions, which are grown near artificial ponds. In its natural environment, the bathing flower is found:
- on the hills and slopes of the mountains,
- by the streams of water
- on the forest edges,
- off the coast of lakes
- on juicy lawns.
The distribution range is the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, the Mediterranean, and the Far East. The Latin name of the flower "Trollius" is associated with the legends of the ancient Scandinavian peoples, who believed that the plant is considered to be the favorite plant of trolls. On the territory of Russia it is called differently. Here are a few options:
- Siberian roses,
- troll flower
Despite this, each of the names reflects a particular feature of the plant, whether it is a coloring or a habitat.
The Russian name of the flower is confined to the pagan holiday of Agafen-bathing, which was celebrated on July 6. Since that time, the swimming season has opened in nearby rivers and lakes.
The bathing flower belongs to the "Butterie" family. Depending on the type of plant can reach 100 cm in height. Shoots are most often straight, which have many branches. During the flowering period, the bathing suit puts on spherical buds of bright colors, located on long peduncles. In addition, the plant is characterized by such features:
- strong root system
- dark green leaves
- plate form - loopy-cut,
- for petals characteristic glossy finish.
Despite the fact that all types of swimsuits are considered poisonous, insects love them for a large amount of sweet nectar. At one time, the flower was massively used to create bouquets, so its number in nature has decreased significantly. To save a unique plant, in many countries it is listed in the Red Book.
There is a plant in the Siberian forests near water bodies or in the damp lowlands of the rivers. Her buds resemble miniature bells. At the beginning of flowering, they look like small lemon balls consisting of glossy sepals. Later they are revealed in all their glory and attract a lot of insects that fly in search of sweet nectar. The base of the plant is decorated with palmate-dissected leaves on long petioles.
Feature of the flower - large size. It grows up to 120 cm in height and is distinguished by unfolded buds of a wide oval shape. The most famous variety of this species is the Golden Queen bathing house. Its height is about 80 cm. Finger-shaped leaf plates are collected at the base of the plant and remain decorative throughout the season. Golden buds bloom in June and have an unusual shape.
The plant successfully develops in open areas where there is a lot of sunlight. He loves moisture, but disappears during prolonged stagnation of water. Miraculously tolerates winter cold and does not need shelter.
The Golden Quinn swimsuit depicted in the photo is distinguished by delicate petals, bright color and unique shape of buds. It is widely used to decorate artificial ponds, borders, stony gardens and mixborders.
This type of flower belongs to the low dwarf varieties, reaching a height of only 15 cm. But if you feed the soil with humus, the bathing suit can conquer a half-meter height. In the natural environment is found in the mountains and in open areas of mixed forests. It blooms in early summer and lasts a whole month. The buds are colored bright yellow.
Secrets of growing a troll flower at home
In order for a wonderful piece of sun to appear on the site, you can take advantage of traditional options: dividing a bush, buying seedlings in a store and sowing seeds in a bathing bowl. The latter method is used for growing plants, both in open ground and in containers.
Since flower seeds have uneven germination, it is better to first grow seedlings indoors. When it is stronger, transfer to the open ground.
Cultivation from the seeds of a bathing-place - an exotic troll flower is started from the preparation of the soil. It must meet the following requirements:
- nutritional value
It is obtained by mixing peat, leaf soil and humus in equal parts. To know how to grow a swimsuit from seed, you should familiarize yourself with the basic rules of this process.
Sowing start in the winter, it is best in January to prepare the seedlings in a timely manner. First, the prepared soil is laid out in containers, and then shallow wells are made at a distance of 35-40 cm. Next, the tanks are placed in a room where the temperature does not exceed + 4 ° С for 3 months.
Growing a bathing vessel and caring for a plant means regular watering. It is carried out as the topsoil dries quickly. When sprouts appear, conduct a dive, leaving the best specimens. In late summer, young flowers are planted in open ground on a suitable part of the garden.
If it is not possible to grow seedlings, bathing seeds can be sown in the fall directly into open ground.
A wise approach to the care of the "favorite" trolls
Although the plant does not require special attention to itself, this does not mean that it does not need to be taken care of. In fact, planting and caring for a swimsuit is considered a pleasant occupation for florists. It includes 4 main procedures:
Watering the plants is important to implement in a timely manner so that the swimsuit does not suffer from "thirst." As soon as the soil has dried, it is time to give it a new portion of moisture. In dry times, the procedure is repeated almost every day.
You can feed the flower with peat or special fertilizers. It is better to do this at the beginning of May and immediately before the ejection of the buds. Gardeners recommend preparing a solution of the following components:
Fertilizing produce small doses at the appointed time.
To rid the plant of neighbors weeds, it should be weeded periodically. As a result, the flower will not lose its decorative appearance throughout the season. If there are no weeds in the flowerbed, loosen the soil. This procedure has a beneficial effect on the development of the swimsuit. After some time, the summer cottage will turn into a kingdom of exquisite fire colors.
Bathing (Frying). Growing up
Swimsuit(Frying)- one of the favorite and unpretentious garden plants. Many legends and childhood memories are associated with it, when, walking in the woods, we tore these bright yellow flowers with delicate fresh aroma and wove wreaths of them on our heads.
A bathing ground is a perennial plant forming a compact bush 50–100 cm high with upright leafy stems ending with 1–2 large spherical flowers. The swimsuit flowers, like all buttercups, are distinguished by glossy, as if lacquered, petals of bright sunny colors: lemon yellow, golden yellow, bright orange. Flowers are round shape.
In the wild, the bathing place is widespread throughout the European part of Russia, in the Urals, in Siberia, in the Altai, it grows in forest glades and meadows. It blooms in May - early June, but there are late species that bloom in July and August. Flowering lasts 18-25 days.
Swimsuits are planted in separate groups among the lawn, in borders, at the foot of the Alpine hills. Especially well looked bathing, planted in a shady garden, under the trees, among the lawn, on the edge of the reservoir. These plants are well grown for cutting.
Flowers do not fade for a long time if they are immediately put into the water.
Growing and nursing swimsuit.
Bathhouse. Variety "Golden Queen".
The place for the swimsuit is chosen slightly shaded, because in sunny open areas the plants become smaller and fade too quickly. Swimsuits should be grown on fairly moist, but at the same time well-drained soil.
In general, these plants grow well on any fertile soils, except for dry sandy. Under the landing of bathing suits per 1 m2 add 5 - 6 kg of well-cultivated peat with manure, humus or peat-rich humus.
In addition, you need to add floral soil mixture, for example: "Saintpaulia" or "Azalea". From fertilizers make 1 tbsp. spoon nitrofoski.
Propagate the swimsuit mainly by division
bush, as the seeds germinate extremely slowly, unfriendly and unevenly. On the dug up and well-spilled soil planted either purchased ready-made seedlings in pots, or their own delenky faded bush.
A dug bush should not be shaken off the ground, since thin, delicate roots, when dried, quickly die off and the plants do not take root well.
Swimsuits can grow for a long time in one place and do not like frequent transplants.
The best time for a transplant is mid-summer,
Bathhouse. Variety "Lemon Queen."
when, after flowering, the plants are at rest. At this time, the bushes are dug and with a sharp knife are divided into small delenki (3 - 4 buds on each).
Such rejuvenated delenki in the second year form large bushes with 5 - 6 peduncles. In dry summer, plants, especially young ones, must be watered abundantly. The swimsuit is watered frequently, but not abundantly.
All kinds of bathing flowers bloom annually and abundantly. Swimsuits are cold-resistant and do not require shelter for the winter.
Top dressing The plant is given in very small doses - dilute 1 tsp of nitrophoska, Agricola for flowering plants and 1 tbsp in 10 l of water. urea spoon. Feed up in early May. This feeding can be repeated before flowering. Feeding significantly increase the pomp and brightness of flowers.
Currently, many varieties are bred, most of which are hybrids.
European bathhouse. As an ornamental garden culture, this plant is most often grown. It forms dense bushes with numerous peduncles 50–70 cm high. Spherical flowers with a diameter of 5 cm with lemon yellow and dense yellow bright glossy petals burning in the sun give the plant a very elegant look.
Golden queen - the most favorite kind of bathing. This giant plant is up to 80 cm high. The flowers are single, very large, up to 5 cm in diameter, it blooms very abundantly in late spring - early summer.
In early January, seeds are sown in boxes and kept at a temperature of 2–4 ° C for three months, after which the box with sowing is transferred to a room with a temperature of 18–20 ° C. After the seedlings of the first true leaf have appeared, they are swooped down (seated).
In August, seedlings are planted in a permanent place, keeping a distance of 30 - 40 cm between the plants. The following year the bathing place will bloom.
There are other varieties of bathing, for example: Lightball, Irlist of Ol, Lemon Quinn.
In what conditions do the bathing plants grow, the flowers of frying, what kind of care is needed for this plant?
A bathing vessel, a flower fry, and a trolley are all names for a charming herbaceous perennial belonging to the buttercup family.
The Latin name is associated with the shape of the plant, because trulleus is a "spherical vessel." The name of the bathing plant received in Russia, as it grows along rivers and streams, on wet meadows.
It blooms when the swimming season opens. Hot, growing near the water, as if swimming too.
In former times, the colors of the bathing houses could be admired in nature, at a picnic. Now the bathing flower in forest glades is much less common, and some types of bathing flower are even listed in the Red Books of a number of regions.
Growing in the garden
- Bathing place feels great in a semi-shaded place. Loves moisturetherefore, it grows beautifully on the damp shore of the pond in the garden. The plant is sun-loving and winter-hardy, shelter is not required.
- Compost or peat is added to the planting hole for the swimsuit. The most favorable for the cultivation of plant soils: structural, light or medium loamy, with a high content of humus.
- The swimsuit grows well on rich, light in texture soil, close in acidity to neutral. Grow on the soil, poor in humus. Plants use a mixture of leafy land with sand or peat.
- The flowers of most ornamental species appear in late spring - early summer, in some species it occurs much later. The flowering time and the height of the plant also depend on the variety and type.
Hot in landscape design
Swimsuits look great in groups on lawns, mixborders, near shrubs and trees.
Special well the combination of bathing and stone: in the foreground - stunted perennials, behind which the bathing vessels themselves are located; in the background, higher plants, later flowering perennials with leaves of decorative shape and color, are located. Frying is also used for forcing.
One of the valuable qualities of the plant is that it consists of bouquets that do not fade for a long time. In this regard, the European bathing house stands out.
Myths and legends about the plant
Different nations attributed roasting mythical properties and a special story. In Germans, this flower is called Trollblume, that is, a troll flower. In their opinion, mythical formidable creatures like the bathing flower very much, and in places where it grows, the trolls gather at full moon and boil a healing drink from frying.
In Russia, the plant got its name due to the pagan holiday of Ivan Kupala. After all, the hot bloom just in time for the holiday. The first Russian flowers are considered heralds from Ivan Kupala. By the way, the name hot is more common in Ukraine, where the name "night blindness" is also used, Muscovites called the flower "avdotka", Vologda residents - "cufflink". There are other names.
Harm and Benefit
The bathing plant serves more often for decorative purposes, with its help summer cottages, gardens and flower beds are made out. The flower is unpretentious, lives longblooms for at least a month with bright yellow flowers. More often, the swimsuit is planted in flower beds along with forget-me-nots or blue irises. The flower is long standing in a vase.
Fires is considered a poisonous plant, but is still used in traditional medicine as an external agent used for grinding for edema and tumors. Broth from a flower serves as an antiseptic and styptic.
In case of improper handling and exceeding the recommended doses, there is a great risk of causing great harm to your body!
Bathing vessel: 85 photos of beautiful use of a flower in gardens and at decoration of a site
From May to July in city parks there is a low shrub with flowers of shades from yellow to bright orange. This is a representative of the buttercup family - bathing (Trollius). In the European version of the name comes from the legend of the forest trolls.
“Trollblumen” in German means “flower of a troll”, according to legends, this particular flower is preferred by the rest of these forest dwellers.
In the Slavic version, the name refers to the patroness of the reservoirs, next to which this flower is often found - Agrafena Kupalnitsa.
The bathhouse is a perennial shrub, 50-100 cm high with one or several flowers on a high peduncle. The leaves of the plant are green, cut into five blades in shape. On one stalk there are 10-25 leaves collected in rosettes. The root system is powerful, goes deep into the ground. From one rhizome grows several stems.
Popularity among florists and landscape designers has become a bathing place due to large spherical flowers. Their color varies from lilac and pale yellow to bright orange.
In some varieties, the diameter of the flower reaches 10 cm, but more often it varies within 3-7 cm. The plant is a honey plant. As can be seen in the photo, the outer petals of the bathing corolla are wide, the inner ones are narrow, transformed into nectaries and exude a faint, pleasant smell.
Description, features of the structure and types of European bathing
Bathing-ground is a perennial plant, the main decoration of which is rounded flowers, shaped like poppy and rose, yellow or orange.But even after flowering, the bush remains highly decorative due to the beautiful dark green palmate leaves of the original form.
All types of bathing suits are suitable for growing in the garden and in flowerbeds. On their basis, beautiful hybrid varieties have been created that combine all the advantages of maternal species.
- 1. Description
- 2. Main types
- 3. Reproduction
- 4. Growing
Swimsuits - perennial herbaceous plants of the buttercup family. The name Trollius is associated with a round shape of a flower that resembles a ball (troll), and also means “flower of trolls”.
In nature, up to 30 species of this ornamental plant are known, 20 of which grow in Eurasia, the majority in Siberia and the Far East. In each region, the plant has its own folk names: frying, lights, bells, Siberian rose.
Kupava and trolls are derived from official names.
The height of the plant in sunny areas reaches 60 cm, in the shade the bush stretches up to 90 cm. The stalk is branched, with a two-year development cycle. Leaves are basal, palmate-divided or lobed, sharp-toothed. The lower leaves are collected in the outlet. Rhizome short, branched. Large roots are moving away from it, penetrating deep into the soil and providing the plant with water.
The root system of all types of swimsuit is poisonous, and the ground part is suitable for feeding livestock and is used in traditional medicine. Juice is yellow, before it was used for dyeing fabrics.
Bush bathing thick, lush. At the same time, about a dozen double flowers with a diameter of up to 8 cm are revealed. Looking at them, you can see the features of the external structure. Each of the flowers consists of two dozen petals, which are actually sepals. Calyx falls in the flowering process.
The modified petals are called nectaries. Their purpose is to attract bees to the flower, contributing to pollination and seed formation. The receptacle is wide, convex, filled with stamens and pistils. The flower formula is from * P∞ A∞ G∞ to * Ca5 Co5-20 A∞ G∞. All elements of the flower are arranged in a spiral.
On the peduncle is usually located one flower, but there are branchings that end with several smaller buds. They have a pleasant, albeit weak flavor.
Bathing suit is a good honey plant.
The fruit of the plant is a multi-leaf with a spout. During maturation, it opens along the seam. Seeds are oval, shiny, black, the length of each seed is up to 2 mm.
The most common types of swimsuit are described in the table: